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In 1,803 Great Britain took possession of the island of Tasmania and in the following year established a penal colony there. At that time there were approximately 7,000 natives, but they had been completely exterminated by 1,888. Originally part of New South Wales, Tasmania became a separate colony in 1,825, but did not receive its present name until 1,853. (Ref. 38 , 213 ) Additional Notes

Melanesia

Insert Map: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia

The people of the Solomon Islands are generally darker and shorter than even those of Fiji, New Caledonia or the New Hebrides, with many of the interior tribesmen being very black. Pygmies are present in the southern islands. European domination of the Pacific islands did not occur rapidly. New Caledonia, rich in minerals, became French in 1,853 and by 1,900 there were 23,500 whites in that group, by far the largest Caucasian population in any South Seas island chain. After 1,887 New Hebrides was controlled by a joint naval commission of British and French officers. (Ref. 76 , 134 )

New Guinea (Papua) is the world's largest island, excepting Greenland. It was so named because of coastal similarity to Guinea in Africa and consists largely of tropical jungle in which head-hunting and cannibalism have been practiced in some remote areas perhaps right up to the current writing. The west half of the island was annexed by the Dutch in 1,828 and in 1,884 the British announced a protectorate over the southeast coast and adjacent islands, while the Germans claimed the northeast portion. Thus it remained for the remainder of the century. In Fiji, bordering Melanesia and Polynesia, Europeans came at the opening of the century looking for sandalwood, but their diseases almost destroyed the native Fijians, who were of Melanesian origin. European guns intensified the tribal wars and after many chiefs joined in a request, the British annexed the islands in 1,874. Cannibalism flourished in those islands until the 20th century. Small, hot peppers and other vegetables were served with human meat to give it better flavor. After the British took over they hired natives to work in the cane fields, but at poor wages and only a few would work. As a result the British began to import East Indian laborers and today there are more of the latter in Fiji than natives and that brings up many problems. (Ref. 38 , 175 , 134 )

Since whaling vessels stayed at sea until their barrels were filled with oil, the voyages sometimes took 2 or 3 years and only the dregs and troublemakers of the sailing men's world could be talked into signing up for such long voyages. As a result the Pacific islanders saw some mighty rough and dishonest American and British sailors. They brought in rum, started fights, stole women and anything else available. Some jumped ship to become pirates on their own, the most famous being "Bully" Hayes, who also was one of the originators of "blackbirding". Ship captains would "rent" natives to entrepreneurs to be used as laborers or miners (in South America) with the theory being that af ter a certain period the "blackbird" would be released to return home. Few ever did. The men of Melanesia suffered most of this blackbirding and wherever they were taken, living condition were very bad and 10% up to 75% of them died of disease. In the late 1,870s the people of New Caledonia rebelled against that and started to slaughter- any foreigner, savagely. That got the attention of European governments so that they finally forced an end to that traffic in island people.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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