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In 1,803 Great Britain took possession of the island of Tasmania and in the following year established a penal colony there. At that time there were approximately 7,000 natives, but they had been completely exterminated by 1,888. Originally part of New South Wales, Tasmania became a separate colony in 1,825, but did not receive its present name until 1,853. (Ref. 38 , 213 ) Additional Notes


Insert Map: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia

The people of the Solomon Islands are generally darker and shorter than even those of Fiji, New Caledonia or the New Hebrides, with many of the interior tribesmen being very black. Pygmies are present in the southern islands. European domination of the Pacific islands did not occur rapidly. New Caledonia, rich in minerals, became French in 1,853 and by 1,900 there were 23,500 whites in that group, by far the largest Caucasian population in any South Seas island chain. After 1,887 New Hebrides was controlled by a joint naval commission of British and French officers. (Ref. 76 , 134 )

New Guinea (Papua) is the world's largest island, excepting Greenland. It was so named because of coastal similarity to Guinea in Africa and consists largely of tropical jungle in which head-hunting and cannibalism have been practiced in some remote areas perhaps right up to the current writing. The west half of the island was annexed by the Dutch in 1,828 and in 1,884 the British announced a protectorate over the southeast coast and adjacent islands, while the Germans claimed the northeast portion. Thus it remained for the remainder of the century. In Fiji, bordering Melanesia and Polynesia, Europeans came at the opening of the century looking for sandalwood, but their diseases almost destroyed the native Fijians, who were of Melanesian origin. European guns intensified the tribal wars and after many chiefs joined in a request, the British annexed the islands in 1,874. Cannibalism flourished in those islands until the 20th century. Small, hot peppers and other vegetables were served with human meat to give it better flavor. After the British took over they hired natives to work in the cane fields, but at poor wages and only a few would work. As a result the British began to import East Indian laborers and today there are more of the latter in Fiji than natives and that brings up many problems. (Ref. 38 , 175 , 134 )

Since whaling vessels stayed at sea until their barrels were filled with oil, the voyages sometimes took 2 or 3 years and only the dregs and troublemakers of the sailing men's world could be talked into signing up for such long voyages. As a result the Pacific islanders saw some mighty rough and dishonest American and British sailors. They brought in rum, started fights, stole women and anything else available. Some jumped ship to become pirates on their own, the most famous being "Bully" Hayes, who also was one of the originators of "blackbirding". Ship captains would "rent" natives to entrepreneurs to be used as laborers or miners (in South America) with the theory being that af ter a certain period the "blackbird" would be released to return home. Few ever did. The men of Melanesia suffered most of this blackbirding and wherever they were taken, living condition were very bad and 10% up to 75% of them died of disease. In the late 1,870s the people of New Caledonia rebelled against that and started to slaughter- any foreigner, savagely. That got the attention of European governments so that they finally forced an end to that traffic in island people.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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