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The predicting of the weather is a good example for the need of High Performance Computing. Using the fastest central processing unit computer it might take a year to predict tomorrow's weather. The information would be correct but 365 days late. Using parallel processing techniques and a powerful "high performance computer", we might be able to predict tomorrow’s weather in 6 hours. Not only correct, but in time to be useful.

Measuring computer power

Most people are familiar with the giga hertz (billions of instructions per second) measure to describe how fast a single CPU's processor is running. Most microcomputers of today are running around 3 GHz or 3 billion instructions a second. Although 3 billion sounds fast, many of these instructions are simple operations.

Supercomputing uses a measurement involving floating point arithmetic calculations as the benchmark for comparing computer power. "In computing, FLOPS (or flops or flop / s ) is an acronym meaning FL oating point O perations P er S econd." and again "On May 25, 2008, an American military supercomputer built by IBM, named 'Roadrunner', reached the computing milestone of one petaflop by processing more than 1.026 quadrillion calculations per second." (FLOPS from Wikipedia) For those of us not familiar:

Getting a sense of power

3 billion or 3 GHz is: 3,000,000,000 1 quadrillion or 1 pedaflop is: 1,000,000,000,000,000

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You also should realize that your personal computer is not doing 3 gigafolp worth of calculations, but something slower when using the FLOPS measurement.

High performance computing made personal

It took several years (about 30) to get computers to a personal level (1951 to 1981). It took about twenty years (late 1980’s to present 2009) to get multi-processor computers to the personal level. Currently available to the general public are computers with "duo core" and "quad core" processors. In the near future, micro computers will have 8 to 16 core processors. People ask, "Why would I need that much computer power?" There are dozens of applications, but I can think of a least one item that almost everyone wants: high quality voice recognition. That's right! I want to talk to my computer. Toss your mouse, toss your keyboard, no more touch pad – talk to it.

Again, one short coming is that most programming efforts have been towards teaching and learning the sequential processing way of thinking or solving a problem. Educators will now need to teach and programmers will now need to develop skills in programming using parallel concepts and algorithms.

Summary

We have bounced you back and forth between sequential and parallel concepts. We covered our natural tendency to do work in parallel. But with the birth of computers the parallel concepts were set to the side and the computer industry implemented a faster single processor approach (sequential). We explained the limitations of sequential processing and the need for computing power. Thus, the birth of High Performance Computing. Parallel processing computers are migrating into our homes. With that migration, there is a great need to educate the existing generation and develop the next generation of scientists and programmers to be able to take advantage of High Performance Computing.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals - a modular structured approach using c++. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10621/1.22
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