# 0.2 Molar concentration

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The idea of mole concept is simple. It neatly relates various reactants and products in the ratio of whole numbers. There is, however, one hitch in applying this concept. The reactants or products may not necessarily be participating in its pure form. Consider the reaction :

$Mg+2HCl\to MgC{l}_{2}+{H}_{2}$

Here, magnesium is used in its pure solid form. The hydrogen gas is evolved in pure gaseous form. On the other hand, Hydrochloric acid is used as a solution of a specific concentration in water.

Thus, magnesium and hydrogen exist in pure form. We can find moles of solid magnesium by using its molecular weight. Similarly, we can determine moles of pure hydrogen gas using Avogadro’s hypothesis. In the case of hydrochloric acid, however, the acid in the form of solute participates in reaction – not the solvent i.e. water. Clearly, we need to find a way to connect the concentration of HCl to mass or moles. In this module, we shall exactly do the same by defining different concentration terms of the solution and its relation with mass or moles of the solute as involved in the reaction.

Solution
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. The substance present in smaller proportions is called solute and the substance in larger proportion is called the solvent.

Solution comprises of solute and solvent. In expressing concentration of solution, we make use of the fact that mass is conserved,

$\text{Mass of solution}\left({W}_{S}\right)=\text{Mass of solute}\left({W}_{B}\right)+\text{Mass of solvent}\left({W}_{A}\right)$

The concentration, however, need not be necessarily expressed in terms of mass (w). We may choose volume (v) also depending upon measuring convenience. Sometime, we may express concentration as combination of mass (w) and volume (v).

Concentration of a solution is basically measurement of solute (B) with respect to solution(S) or solvent(A). With the only exception of molality, concentration is expressed as a comparison of the quantity of solute (B) to that of solution (A+B). In the case of molality, it is comparison of solute (B) to that of solvent (A). Further, this comparative ratio is either a number or percentage (%).

There are large numbers of concentration measuring terms. They are basically classified under following three categories :

• Measurement based on mass/volume : mass percentage (w/w), volume percentage (v/v), strength of solution (w/v)
• Measurement based on molecular weight (moles) : molarity (M), molality (m)
• Measurement based on equivalent weight (gram - equivalents) : normality (N)

## Mass percentage (w/w)

The mass percentage is expressed as :

$\text{Mass percentage}\left(x\right)=\frac{\text{Mass of solute}\left(B\right)}{\text{Mass of solution}\left(A+B\right)}X100$

$⇒\text{Mass percentage}\left(x\right)=\frac{{W}_{B}}{{W}_{S}}X100=\frac{{W}_{B}}{{W}_{A}+{W}_{B}}X100$

If we measure mass in grams, we can rewrite the expression :

$⇒\text{Mass percentage}\left(x\right)=\frac{{g}_{B}}{{g}_{S}}X100=\frac{{g}_{B}}{{g}_{A}+{g}_{B}}X100$

Sometimes, we may opt to express concentration simply as fraction. In this case, we are not required to multiply ratio by 100,

$\text{Mass fraction}=\frac{{W}_{B}}{{W}_{A}+{W}_{B}}=\frac{{g}_{B}}{{g}_{A}+{g}_{B}}$

Problem : One litre of oxalic acid of density 1.08 gm/cc contains 3.24 gm of oxalic acid. Find its mass percentage.

Solution : The mass of solute (oxalic acid) is given. We need to find the mass of the solution to determine mass percentage.

${g}_{S}={V}_{S}X{\rho }_{S}=1000X1.08=1080\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}gm$

$⇒\text{Mass percentage}\left(x\right)=\frac{{g}_{B}}{{g}_{A}+{g}_{B}}X100=\frac{3.28}{1008}X100=0.3$

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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