# 0.3 Discrete structures logic  (Page 2/23)

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## Elements of propositional logic

Simple sentences which are true or false are basic propositions. Larger and more complex sentences are constructed from basic propositions by combining them with connectives. Thus propositions and connectives are the basic elements of propositional logic. Though there are many connectives, we are going to use the following five basic connectives here:

NOT, AND, OR, IF_THEN (or IMPLY), IF_AND_ONLY_IF.

They are also denoted by the symbols: ¬, ⋀,⋁,→,↔ ,

respectively.

## Truth table

Often we want to discuss properties/relations common to all propositions. In such a case rather than stating them for each individual proposition we use variables representing an arbitrary proposition and state properties/relations in terms of those variables. Those variables are called a propositional variable. Propositional variables are also considered a proposition and called a proposition since they represent a proposition hence they behave the same way as propositions. A proposition in general contains a number of variables. For example (P ⋁Q) contains variables P and Q each of which represents an arbitrary proposition. Thus a proposition takes different values depending on the values of the constituent variables. This relationship of the value of a proposition and those of its constituent variables can be represented by a table. It tabulates the value of a proposition for all possible values of its variables and it is called a truth table.

For example the following table shows the relationship between the values of P, Q and P⋁Q:

 OR P Q (P ⋁Q) F F F F T T T F T T T T
In the table, F represents truth value false and T true. This table shows that P⋁Q is false if P and Q are both false, and it is true in all the other cases.

## Meaning of the connectives

Let us define the meaning of the five connectives by showing the relationship between the truth value (i.e. true or false) of composite propositions and those of their component propositions. They are going to be shown using truth table. In the tables P and Q represent arbitrary propositions, and true and false are represented by T and F, respectively.

 NOT P ¬P T F F T
This table shows that if P is true, then (¬P) is false, and that if P is false, then (¬P) is true.

 AND P Q (P ⋀Q) F F F F T F T F F T T T
This table shows that (P⋀Q) is true if both P and Q are true, and that it is false in any other case. Similarly for the rest of the tables.

 OR P Q (P ⋁Q) F F F F T T T F T T T T

 IMPLIES P Q (P→Q) F F T F T T T F F T T T
When P→Q is always true, we express that by P ⇒Q. That is P ⇒Q is used when proposition P always implies proposition Q regardless of the value of the variables in them.

 IF AND ONLY IF P Q ( P ↔Q ) F F T F T F T F F T T T
When P ↔Q is always true, we express that by P ⇔Q. That is ⇔is used when two propositions always take the same value regardless of the value of the variables in them.

## Construction of complex propositions

First it is informally shown how complex propositions are constructed from simple ones. Then more general way of constructing propositions is given.

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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