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MathML also allows improvisation of an operator rendered by “mo” element. This generally makes use of other characters rendering elements such as “mi” or "mn" elements in addition to "mo" element and their combination with layout elements like “mfrac” and scripting elements (“msub”, “msup” etc.) Simply put, MathML treats an expression with a “mo” element at core and improvised by other elements - as an operator of class known as “embellished” operator.

Consider encoding for a differentiation operator "&DifferentialD;" . This operator when applied to a variable, say t, is represented as t In mathematics, however, t is itself considered to be an operator. The whole block consisting of “mfrac” element is, thus, an embellished operator.

<m:mfrac> <m:mo> &DifferentialD; </m:mo> <m:mrow> <m:mo> &DifferentialD; </m:mo> <m:mi> x </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:mfrac>

Additional attribute : default values

Default values to the attributes of “mo” element are set in accordance with the values contained in “operator dictionary”, which specifies “form”, “fence”, “stretchy”, “lspace” and “rspace” attributes for different operators. The renderer maintains an operator dictionary for most of the operators. W3C recommends a prototype of operator dictionary. These recommendations can be viewed at www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/appendixf.html . If the dictionary does not provide the value for the attribute, then attribute is set with default value as given here:

    Default values

  • form : set by position/context
  • fence : false
  • separator : false
  • lspace : thickmathspace
  • rspace : thickmathspace
  • stretchy : false
  • symmetric : true
  • maxsize : infinity
  • minsize : 1
  • largeop : false
  • movablelimits : false
  • accent : false

Managing space around operators

    Attribute value types

  • form : prefix | infix | postfix
  • lspace : number h-unit | namedspace
  • rspace : number h-unit | namedspace

The "form" attribute specifies whether an operator shall be rendered as "prefix" or "postfix" or "infix" operator. These form types determine space around the operator (left and right of it). Each form type is associated with two attributes ("lspace" and "rspace"), which implements its left space ("lspace") and right space ("rspace"). It is important to understand that form types are basically specification about space around operator and about its role with respect to other elements.

The default value of “form” attribute is set in accordance with three rules, involving "mrow" element. The token elements, including "mo" element, is composed within explicit or inferred "mrow" element. The position of an operator within the "mrow" in horizontal sequence determines the form type of the operator. If operator is the first element, then its form is inferred as "prefix"; if it is in the intermediate position, then its form is inferred as "infix”; and if it is in the end position, then its form is inferred as "postfix". Corresponding to each form, operator library specifies "lspace" and "rspace". It is, however, not necessary that each of the operator has all the three form types. The nature of operator determines the type of forms that a particular operator should be associated with. For example, "+" operator has entries for "prefix" and "infix", but not for "postfix" in the operator dictionary, because "postfix" form of "+" operator is not expected to be placed at the end of an expression.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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