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Southeast asia

Continental southeast asia


At the beginning of the century the area of present day Burma consisted of

  • An Araken monarchy, with a capital at Mrohauing
  • Burmese Ava in the main Irrawaddy Valley, captured by the Shans in 1527 (Ref. 206 )
  • Burmese Toungoo in the Sittany Valley
  • Mon Pegu on the Irrawaddy delta and Tenasserim
To the north and east of Ava were a number of Shan states, but after some 300 years of divided rule, the Toungoo Dynasty conquered both the Shans and Mons in the middle of the century, making a united Burma. It then began two centuries of expansion eastward into Siam.

Thailand (siam)

A powerful Thai kingdom existed, controlling much of the eastern coast of the Malay Peninsula. In the last half of the century tin was exported to Europe to supplement the Cornish tin mines. (Ref. 292 )


The Laos kingdom of Luany Prabang stretched along the upper and middle Mekong.

Malay peninsula

The eastern coast was controlled by the Siamese while Malacca, on the west, had been conquered in 1511 by the Portuguese, who then controlled the spice and tin trade of the world. Had the remaining Malay states united they might have been able to drive out the invading Portuguese, but they fought against one another, instead. (Ref. 140 ) When the value of bronze artillery became known to the rulers of India, China and Japan, Malayan tin became critically important. (Ref. 279 )

Indonesia and adjacent islands

Portugal also had stations on Java and Borneo to further consolidate their far eastern trade. In "greater" Java the chief town was Bantam, even for some time after the Dutch built Batavia, in 1619. Bantam was on the northwest tip of the island, surrounded by swamps, with red brick walls and cannon. Three streets leading away from the royal palace were filled with vendors of poultry, parrots, fish, meat, hot cakes, silks, thread, precious stones and what-not. But to the east of the city there was a square where large scale merchants, investors and shippers met. The Chinese played a large role in this gathering, of ten buying up produce for months before the trading ships from the west could arrive on the monsoon winds. (Ref. 292 ) By the end of the century the Dutch were making their appearance by setting up a factory on Sumatra. The Spaniards had established themselves in the Philippines with a capital at Manila by 1571 after the islands had first been "discovered" by Magellan

Magellan was killed on the Philippine island of Cebu in 1521 and of his original 5 ships only 2 made it to the Moluccas and only 18 of the original sailors got back to Seville. (Ref. 222 ) Additional Notes
in 1521. The-Spanish exchanged Mexican silver for Chinese silk with galleons sailing back and forth from Acapulco to Manilla quite regularly after 1572. (Ref. 292 ) The Muslim states on Mindanao retained their independence from Spain for another three centuries. (Ref. 153 , 8 )

Except for the island of Bali, the Islamic faith had completely replaced Hinduism and Buddhism in Indonesia by the end of the century and the old Majapahit Kingdom was broken up into a number of small, weak Muslim states, no match for the invading Europeans. (Ref. 175 )

Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese, but was despised by King Manuel I, so he went to work for Spain, under Emperor Charles V. On his around the world trip his men had no fresh food for almost 4 months and there was terrible morbidity and death from scurvy. (Ref. 302 ) (In Portuguese - Fernao Magalhaes) (Ref. 317 )

Forward to The Far East: A.D. 1601 to 1700

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Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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