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This module contains suggestions for how to read a variety of texts generally, with special emphasis on issues of authorship, ownership and the historical and legal context.

Some tips for reading...

Leave yourself time.

The most important rule for actually getting something out of the reading is to leave yourself time not only to read the text, butto think about it, and to ask questions about it. Plan ahead, budget a couple of hours, and if only takes 30 minutes to read,use the rest of the time to consider the text, to reread parts, to pose questions, or to compare it with other texts.

Take notes.

There are many styles of taking notes. Some people copy down quotations in order to remember them,some people make maps or hierarchies, some people write their own thoughts about what they've read. Notes should servetwo purposes: they should allow you to remember what you read without having to re-read the whole thing, and theyshould serve as a basis for discussion in class and for your own writing. Figure out for yourself how to achieve this.Bring your notes and the text to class for discussion, so that you can add to them or annotate them duringdiscussion.

Know what you are reading.

Do not just start. In this class (Anth 321/Clas 311) there are a lot of different kinds of texts, and we will read them both for whatthey say and examples of forms of authorship and ownership. This requires a zen-like attitude in which you read a text and thinkabout it at the same time. Do not simply pass your eyes over the text and pronounce it read, but sit down before the text andanswer some preliminary questions; figure out what it is, why we're reading it, then read it. Always familiarize yourself withthe text before you begin. If it's not clear what it is, ask one of the instructors or use a trusty friend: the library. Try toanswer these questions before you begin:

  • What era is it from? What year?
  • Does it have an author? multiple authors? An institution as the author? An editor? A translator? Acommentator? Is it a letter, is it written for a particular person? A particular audience?
  • Where was it written? Where was it published? If it's online, where did it come from? Who put it online andwhy?
  • Are you reading an "original" version? Is it abridged, collected, adumbrated, interpolated, translated,edited? Are there other texts by the other? Other versions?
  • What kind of work is it? Poetry, law, commentary on something else? scholarly study? History? Legal document?Offical document?
  • How long is the work? Are you reading a section of it? Do you know which section and why?

Make a time-line.

Go back to the question, "when was it written?" In this class we will read works that span some 2500years. That's a lot of time. You won't be tested on dates and times, but if you make a mistake, it's likely you will beridiculed, or at least publically corrected. These details are important--not in themselves-- but so that you can keep track ofother more general discussions.

  • Make a time line for yourself. In fact, make several. Some issues will cluster around small time periods,others will be empty. Some issues might need to be on separate time lines (i.e. legal changes vs. technical ones).
  • Use the timeline as an aid to memory, not as a way of making arguments. Chronology is important, but it isn'tthat important

Think about authorship and ownership

As we progress in the class, you will learn more about these issues, and will be presented with more and more texts meant todemonstrate different issues. Begin to ask yourelf:

  • What is the legal status of this text? Does it have an owner-- is the owner different than theauthor(s)? What kind of property laws govern it?
  • Is it an anomalous text? Does it stand out for some reason other than what it says?
  • Is the author aware of the first two issues? Does the text refer to its own status as an object?
  • Is the text "valuable" (whatever that might mean)? What makes it so?

Coordinate with other texts.

Do not read each text in isolation. Go back and forth between texts. The readings for this class havebeen carefully selected in order to produce surprising comparisons and connections. If you read each text in isolationand expect enlightenment, you will be disappointed, alone and confused. Do not lose faith, however, because there is always aparty in your text, you just need to find it.

  • Do the texts explicitly refer to each other? How?
  • Do they implicitly refer? Is it assumed that you have read something else?
  • Are there "intertextual" references? (remember your timeline, generally texts only refer in one temporaldirection!) What is the nature of this reference?
  • What are the "common" texts referred to? Are there things the author assumes "everyone knows"? What are they anddo you know them? How can you find out what is "commonly known" vs. what is an obscure reference or inside joke?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Text as property/property as text. OpenStax CNX. Feb 10, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10217/1.7
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