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Inherent moral problems lurk among technical rationality’s false assumptions. Technical rationality often disguises the dominant culture’s political agendas as purely technical processes (English, 2003). And with its emphasis on management skills, technical rationality tends to de-skill educators in cultural matters, turning principals into technocrats and teachers into technicians.

Maintenance of the status quo

Angus (1996) notes that the conventional approach explains social and cultural practices “in terms of their supposed contribution to a stable and coherent organization” (p. 976) and that the conventional view “takes the status quo as normal and natural rather than as the product of a political human action” (p. 980). Universities and PK-12 education alike have long histories of maintaining the organizational status quo. One reason for this is bureaucratization at both levels, particularly in PK-12 education.

As the size and number of public schools in the U.S. increased, so did the level of bureaucracy. Spring (1990) reports that by the end of the 19 th century the bureaucratization of school districts included a top-down hierarchy, differentiated roles, graded schools, a uniform and graded program of study, and “an emphasis on planning, order, regularity, and punctuality” (p. 136), all elements still present in traditional districts. Spring concluded that bureaucratization “ensured that the dominant values of the school system would be Protestant and middle class” (p. 111).

The organizational field of school leadership policy, according to Roach, Smith, and Bouton (2011), includes such stakeholders as university preparation programs, state policy makers, private foundations, and professional organizations. Roach et al. conclude that the field is in a state of institutional isomorphism, defined as “the tendency for seemingly different institutions to adopt very similar policies and practices” (p. 76). Isomorphism centered on state standards “locks schools, colleges, and departments of educational leadership into training ‘best practices’ rather than utilizing the academy to generate new knowledge in administrator preparation” (p.97) or to develop “new forms of practices to meet the needs of an increasingly complex set of school and student factors facing educational leaders in the United States” (p. 102). More specifically, principal preparation programs’ symbiotic relationships with other institutions in their organizational field, combined with the other institutions’ lack of commitment to equity and social justice, inhibit university preparation programs’ development of leaders for equity and social justice.

The faculties of conventional principal preparation programs, of course, bear a fair share of responsibility for maintaining the status quo and failing to address matters of equity and social justice. Curriculum and teaching in conventional principal preparation programs tend to avoid content on equity and social justice and many professors of educational leadership resist efforts to integrate such content into coursework (Sensoy&Diangelo, 2009). Rusch (2004) concluded many professors of educational leadership do not know how to prepare educational leaders for work with diverse populations and thus fear and avoid discussions on equity and social justice in their classes. The avoidance of social justice issues by conservative professors is a source of tremendous frustration for students wishing to discuss those issues (Rusch, 2004) and faculty members committed to social justice (Sensoy&Diangelo, 2009).

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Beyond convention, beyond critique: toward a third way of preparing educational leaders to promote equity and social justice. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11434/1.2
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