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Following the great war with Japan, in which the Koreans defeated the invading Japanese by cutting their supply lines at sea, Injo was put on the throne by the so-called "southern faction" of Confucianists. In 1637, however, the Manchus overran Korea and within 10 years it was simply a vassal state of the Manchu Ch'ing Dynasty and, isolated from the non-Chinese world, became known as "The Hermit Kingdom". The court and the people remained loyal to the Ming and in the last quarter of the century the western faction of Confucianists returned to power, under Sukchong.

Southeast asia

Under the Ming Dynasty of China there was a kind of colonial capitalism among the emigrant Chinese to the East Indies. This has persisted to the present day, with Chinese merchants and bankers among the most prominent of the entire Southeast Asia region. (Ref. 292 )

Mainland southeast asia

After 1644 much of Indo-China and all of Annam became part of the Manchu Chinese Empire. Towns in Vietnam were little populated on ordinary days as the people were in the fields, but twice a month great markets were held. At Hanoi (then Ke-Cho) the merchants were grouped on different streets according to their specialties. In effect it was a fair or market rather than a town. (Ref. 260 ) In 1659 Vietnamese armies penetrated Cambodian territory and in 1697 LanXang split into three rival states and wrangled among themselves for 2 centuries, while f ighting off outside invaders at the same time. Burma had broken up into a number of small states at the beginning of the century. Japanese, Portuguese and Eng1ish traders were all active in Siam, along with the ever present Dutch. The European powers also traded in Burma and Malaysia early in the century. When the Dutch attempted to monopolize Siam's foreign trade, King Narai (1661-88) and his Greek adviser, Constant Phaulkon, invoked French aid and the resulting French garrisons at Bangkok and Mergui led both to a change of dynasty at Ayurthaya and complete expulsion of the French, with heavy losses. (Ref. 175 , 8 )

After the Dutch seized Amaboyna and established themselves at Batavia, the English withdrew from Malaysia, as the Dutch had also captured Malacca from the Portuguese. The latter had introduced pineapples, papaya and sweet potatoes to southeast Asia from America. With Chinese-influenced Vietnam as an exception, houses in southeast Asia were built on piles and made of wood and bamboo, with wood and mud lattices. (Ref. 211 , 260 )

Indonesia and adjacent islands

In the course of this century the Dutch East India Company, by both force and diplomacy, got control of the sources of almost all the valuable spices coming from this part of the world and thus established a virtual monopoly on their shipment to Europe.

Besides their headquarters at Batavia and Malacca, they had a large establishment at Goa to service the Indies' activities. (Ref. 8 ) Sumatrans, as other far easterners, were basically grain eaters. Only a great lord might have chicken and they could not understand the Westerners love of cattle and poultry. Spanish galleons linked America with Manila, where Chinese junks hurried to trade. Mexican silver in the amount of about a million pesos a year thus went to the Orient. (Ref. 260 ) Timor, out at the eastern end of the lower island chain, was held by the Dutch East India Company because of its sandalwood, which could be used as an exchange currency in China. (Ref. 292 )

Forward to The Far East: A.D. 1701 to 1800

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Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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