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Another term for a program or a set of programs is software , and we use both terms interchangeably throughout the text.

Writing computer programs is called computer programming .

The languages used to create computer programs are called programming languages .

To understand C++ programming, it is helpful to know a little background about how current programming languages evolved.

Machine and assembly languages

Machine languages are the lowest level of computer languages. Programs written in machine language consist of entirely of 1s and 0s.

Programs in machine language can control directly to the computer’s hardware.

00101010 000000000001 000000000010

10011001 000000000010 000000000011

A machine language instruction consists of two parts: an instruction part and an address part.

The instruction part (opcode) is the leftmost group of bits in the instruction and tells the computer the operation to be performed.

The address part specifies the memory address of the data to be used in the instruction.

Assembly languages perform the same tasks as machine languages, but use symbolic names for opcodes and operands instead of 1s and 0s.

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Since computers can only execute machine language programs, an assembly language program must be translated into a machine language program before it can be executed on a computer.

Assembly translation

Machine languages and assembly languages are called low-level languages since they are closest to computer hardware.

High-level programming languages

High-level programming languages create computer programs using instructions that much easier to understand than machine or assembly language instructions.

Programs written in a high-level language must be translated into a low level language using a program called a compiler .

A compiler translates programming code into a low-level format.

High-level languages allow programmers to write instructions that look like every English sentences and commonly used mathematical notations.

Each line in a high-level language program is called a statement .

Ex: Result = (First + Second)*Third.

Once a program is written in a high-level language, it must also be translated into the machine language of the computer on which it will be run. This translation can be accomplished in two ways.

When each statement in a high-level source program is translated individually and executed immediately upon translation, the programming language used is called an interpreted language , and the program doing the translation is called an interpreter .

When all of the statements in a high-level source program are translated as a complete unit before any one statement is executed, the programming language used is called is called a compiled language . In this case, the program doing the translation is called a compiler .

Application and system software

Two types of computer programs are: application software and system software.

Application software consists of those programs written to perform particular tasks required by the users.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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