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Another term for a program or a set of programs is software , and we use both terms interchangeably throughout the text.

Writing computer programs is called computer programming .

The languages used to create computer programs are called programming languages .

To understand C++ programming, it is helpful to know a little background about how current programming languages evolved.

Machine and assembly languages

Machine languages are the lowest level of computer languages. Programs written in machine language consist of entirely of 1s and 0s.

Programs in machine language can control directly to the computer’s hardware.

00101010 000000000001 000000000010

10011001 000000000010 000000000011

A machine language instruction consists of two parts: an instruction part and an address part.

The instruction part (opcode) is the leftmost group of bits in the instruction and tells the computer the operation to be performed.

The address part specifies the memory address of the data to be used in the instruction.

Assembly languages perform the same tasks as machine languages, but use symbolic names for opcodes and operands instead of 1s and 0s.

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Since computers can only execute machine language programs, an assembly language program must be translated into a machine language program before it can be executed on a computer.

Assembly translation

Machine languages and assembly languages are called low-level languages since they are closest to computer hardware.

High-level programming languages

High-level programming languages create computer programs using instructions that much easier to understand than machine or assembly language instructions.

Programs written in a high-level language must be translated into a low level language using a program called a compiler .

A compiler translates programming code into a low-level format.

High-level languages allow programmers to write instructions that look like every English sentences and commonly used mathematical notations.

Each line in a high-level language program is called a statement .

Ex: Result = (First + Second)*Third.

Once a program is written in a high-level language, it must also be translated into the machine language of the computer on which it will be run. This translation can be accomplished in two ways.

When each statement in a high-level source program is translated individually and executed immediately upon translation, the programming language used is called an interpreted language , and the program doing the translation is called an interpreter .

When all of the statements in a high-level source program are translated as a complete unit before any one statement is executed, the programming language used is called is called a compiled language . In this case, the program doing the translation is called a compiler .

Application and system software

Two types of computer programs are: application software and system software.

Application software consists of those programs written to perform particular tasks required by the users.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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