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Natuurwetenskappe

Graad 5

Energie en verandering

Module 32

Die uitwerking van energie op die toestand van 'n stof

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om te kan verduidelik hoekom energie die toestand van 'n stof bepaal

[lu 2.1]

  • As gevolg van wisselende temperature word stowwe (materie) in die wêreld om ons voortdurend groter (uitsetting) of kleiner (inkrimping). Die meeste stowwe (vastestowwe, vloeistowwe of gasse) sit uit wanneer dit verhit word en krimp wanneer dit afgekoel word.

Alle materie bestaan uit klein deeltjies (atome) wat voortdurend heen en weer beweeg en teen mekaar bots. Die deeltjies en hul beweging is baie, baie klein en ons kan dit nie sien nie. Vir ons lyk 'n stuk yster bloot soos 'n harde, soliede stuk metaal, maar selfs die hardste metaal bestaan uit sulke bewegende deeltjies (atome).

Materie sit uit as dit verhit word omdat die atome waaruit dit bestaan energie absorbeer en dus meer beweeg en harder teen mekaar bots. Die atome word dus van mekaar af weg geforseer en die stof sit uit.

Wanneer die temperatuur daal (die stof verloor hitte), verloor die deeltjies energie en beweeg minder. Die spasie tussen hulle word kleiner omdat hulle minder teen mekaar bots, en die stof krimp.

Inkrimping

Uitsetting

Kom ons kyk nou na hierdie uitwerking van energie op vaste stowwe, vloeistowwe en gasse.

Verfris jou geheue. Voltooi die volgende sin deur die woorde vastestowwe of vloeistowwe of gasse in te vul:

By normale toestande (kamertemperatuur, gewone lugdruk) neem

die vorm van die houer waarin dit gehou word

aan, terwyl die fatsoen van nie verander nie

en die meeste in alle rigtings versprei en die

beskikbare ruimte vul.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om die uitwerking van energie op vastestowwe te bepaal

[lu 1.2.1; 1.2.2; 1.3]

Jou onderwyser gaan 'n demonstrasie doen. Kyk mooi wat gebeur en beantwoord die vrae wat volg.

  • Hy / sy neem ‘n glashouer met ingelegde kos.
  • Hy / sy probeer die fles oopdraai. Dis glad nie so maklik nie.

Waarom?

  • Hy / sy hou die gedeelte met die deksel vir 'n rukkie onder 'n kraan lopende warm water of in 'n houer met warm water. Hy probeer weer die deksel afskroef.

Gaan dit makliker?

Verklaar:

  • Onthou dus: vaste stowwe sit uit as hulle verwarm word, maar almal sit nie eweveel uit nie. Metale sit meer uit as ander vaste stowwe.

Kom ons kyk na voorbeelde in ons alledaagse lewe:

Treinspore se stawe moet gelê word met spasies tussenin, want tydens verhitting (hoër temperature) sal die metaal uitsit en sonder die nodige spasies tussenin sal die spoor buig.

Die ruit vir 'n venster word gewoonlik kleiner as die raam gesny, omdat albei (veral as dit ‘n staalraam is) op warm dae uitsit en op koue dae inkrimp.

Wat kan gebeur indien die ruit presies in die raam pas?

Sien jy die verskil tussen die twee prente?

Verduidelik aan 'n maat wat plaasvind. Maak nou jul eie afleiding en skryf dit neer.

Kyk of jy die volgende in die wetenskaplaboratorium kan kry:

'n Saamgestelde staaf

'n Koperbal-en-ring

  1. Verhit die saamgestelde staaf in 'n vlammetjie (kers of spirituslampie). Wat gebeur?
  1. Watter metaal is aan die buitekant van die kromming?

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10980/1.2
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