<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Connective Tissue Examples
Connective tissue proper Supportive connective tissue Fluid connective tissue
Loose connective tissue
  • Areolar
  • Adipose
  • Reticular
  • Hyaline
  • Fibrocartilage
  • Elastic
Dense connective tissue
  • Regular elastic
  • Irregular elastic
  • Compact bone
  • Cancellous bone

Connective tissue proper

Fibroblasts are present in all connective tissue proper ( [link] ). Fibroblasts and adipocytes are fixed cells, which means they remain within the connective tissue. Other cells, such as mast cells move in and out of the connective tissue in response to chemical signals.

Connective tissue proper

The left image shows a diagram of connective tissue. As a whole, the connective tissue appears somewhat disorganized, with fibers and cells mixed together heterogeneously. There are many open spaces between the embedded elements, suggesting that the connective tissue is somewhat loosely packed. The thickest fibers are collagen fibers; the thinner fibers are elastic fibers. Both the collagen fibers and the elastic fibers crisscross randomly throughout the tissue. In addition, a net of reticular fibers appear in the upper part of the diagram. Two yellow and oval shaped adipocytes are embedded below the reticular fiber net, with a small dark nucleus squeezed into one corner of the cell. A mesenchymal cell is next to one of the adipocytes. The cell is rectangular and has four projections stemming from each corner of the cell. The projections appear to attach to the nearby collagen fibers. A fibroblast is located at the center of the diagram. The fibroblast appears similar to the mesenchymal cell, except that it is larger and has more projections. Finally, a white macrophage is in the lower right of the diagram. The macrophage is a white, oval shaped disc with a prominent nucleus. The right diagram is a micrograph of connective tissue. The tissue is mostly stained pink, however, the thick collagen fibers crisscrossing the tissue are white. Five adipocytes also appear white, except for their cell membrane and nucleus, which stained dark. A mesenchymal cell occupies the space between two adipocytes. It stains a very deep purple, but its shape is unclear in the micrograph. A fibrocyte is also visible as an oval shaped cell with a deep purple nucleus.
Fibroblasts produce this fibrous tissue. Connective tissue proper includes the fixed cells fibrocytes, adipocytes, and mesenchymal cells. LM × 400. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Cell types

The most abundant cell in connective tissue proper is the fibroblast    .Proteoglycans and proteins secreted by fibroblasts combine with extra-cellular fluids to produce a viscous ground substance that, with embedded fibrous proteins, forms the extra-cellular matrix. As you might expect, a fibrocyte    , a less active form of fibroblast, is the second most common cell type in connective tissue proper.

Connective tissue fibers and ground substance

Three main types of fibers are secreted by fibroblasts: collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. Collagen fibers , while flexible, have great tensile strength, resist stretching, and give ligaments and tendons their characteristic resilience and strength. These fibers hold connective tissues together, even during the movement of the body.

Elastic fiber contains the protein elastin. The main property of elastic fibers are that after being stretched or compressed, it will return to its original shape. Elastic fibers are prominent in elastic tissues found in skin and the elastic ligaments of the vertebral column and the outer ear.

Reticular fiber is also formed from the same protein subunits as collagen fibers; however, these fibers form a branching network. They are found throughout the body, but are most abundant in the reticular tissue of soft organs, such as liver and spleen, where they anchor and provide structural support

Loose connective tissue

Loose connective tissue is found between many organs where it acts both to absorb shock and bind tissues together. It allows water, salts, and various nutrients to diffuse through to adjacent or imbedded cells and tissues.

Adipose tissue consists mostly of fat storage cells, with little extracellular matrix ( [link] ). White fat contributes mostly to lipid storage and can serve as insulation from cold temperatures and mechanical injuries. Adipose tissue can be found protecting the kidneys and cushioning the back of the eye. It is also found directly beneath the skin.

Adipose tissue

Image A shows a collection of yellow adipocytes that do not have a consistent shape or size, however, most have the general appearance of a kernel of corn with a wide end that tapers to a point. Each adipocyte has a nucleus occupying a small area on one side of the cell. Nothing else is visible within the cells. Image B shows a micrograph of adipose tissue. Here, the adipocytes are stained purple. However, only their edges and their nuclei stain, giving the adipose tissue a honeycomb appearance. The adipocytes in the micrograph are large and round, but still show a diversity of shapes and sizes. The nucleus appears as a dark staining area very close to the cell membrane.
This is a loose connective tissue that consists of fat cells with little extracellular matrix. It stores fat for energy and provides insulation. LM × 800. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Histology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11764/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Histology' conversation and receive update notifications?