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The teacher will assign one street block to every two learners. Learners must then fill in the details regarding the use of land on a table similar to the one on the previous page. Learners are also expected to draw a rough map of their area. If possible, it should also show the respective numbers of the plots.

IMPORTANT : Don’t walk about on your own in an unsafe area. Stay in a group. Teachers must ensure that learners don’t find themselves in areas which might be unsafe.

assignments for groupwork :

Hand in your work sheets containing the data, as well as a neat map depicting that part of the rural area where your survey was made.

3. Urban services

The bigger the town or city, the more services are usually found. As more people live in cities, more services are needed. For any business to be profitable, there has to be a minimum number of persons to support such a business. A pharmacy depends on at least 2 000 customers to survive. Certain services, however, are available in all cities, for example post offices, while other services are only available in some cities, for instance universities.

Urban services fall in different categories, such as:

a) Public services such as libraries, magistrate’s offices, hospitals, police stations, schools and churches.

b) Financial and professional services, such as medical practitioners, dentists, veterinary surgeons, attorneys, banks and insurance companies.

Commercial enterprises such as pharmacies, jewellers, furnishers, outfitters and bakeries, as well as butchers and car dealers.

4. Urban problems

Cities experience a variety of problems due to factors such as a rapid increase of residents, that put a strain on resources. The following problems are generally found in most cities:

a) Traffic problems due to the large number of residents who are road users.

b) Pollution due to gases emitted by factories and cars.

  1. Strain on agricultural land bordering on the outskirts of the city due to the demand

for land development.

d) Deterioration of buildings in the CBD due to age and a lack of maintenance.

5. The impact of human activities on the environment

Activity 3:

To identify problems and find the right solutions

[lo 2.3]

Study the following illustration and answer the questions that follow:

1. What serious problem do residents of this city face?

2. Which steps could be taken to improve or prevent the situation?

3. In what way could recycling contribute to relieve the strain of human waste on the environment?

4. What will happen if the human race continues to pollute the earth’s environment, air and water resources?

Further assignments for group work :

Find more information on the following forms of pollution:

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Soil pollution


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Geographical EnquiryThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
This is seen when the learner:
1.2 interprets information from maps and atlases and from graphic and statististical
1.5 identifies and records information in the specific field [working with sources];
1.7 in various ways reports knowledge obtained during the study by formulating an argument based on information found; uses maps, diagrams and graphics; uses, where possible, computers in the presentation [putting the answer across].
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE ANDUNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrategeographical and environmentalknowledge and understanding.
This is clear when the learner:
2.1 identifies and compares various kinds of settlement patterns [people and places];
  1. identifies factors that influence the formation of settlement patterns (natural, economic, social/ political) [people and resources];
2.3 identifies crucial factors leading to changes in settlement patterns in South Africa, Africa and elsewhere [people and environment].



  1. More or less in the middle. Always in the most accessible part of the urban area.
  2. Low-income housing area. This is an informal settlement area, in other words a squatter area. B is also adjacent to an industrial area, which makes it highly unsuitable for high-income housing.
  3. Industries.
  4. No provision was made for sport facilities.


Answer according to the area where you live.


  1. Pollution. The lack of refuse removal as a basic survive is the underlying problem.
  2. Providing more and free rubbish bins and big refuse containers. Launching educational programs in the community.

Factories in the distance (on the diagram) can be forced by means of legislation to install filters in chimneys for combating pollution.

  1. Very important role. Recycling containers can be placed on strategic points. Separate containers (clearly marked) for paper, glass and tins.
  2. The destruction of the environment will increase to such an extent that future generations will not be able to enjoy the same quality of life as present generations. May lead to an outbreak of diseases and epidemics.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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