<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

3. Why some people are at a higher risk to be affected by tropical cyclones than others

If you look at the map of the world (figure 8 on p. 33) on which the ground-plates are indicated, you will notice that we find some of the world’s most densely populated areas in these danger zones. Should an earthquake occur, many lives could be lost.

In developed countries or regions like Europe, the USA and Japan an earthquake’s damage can be limited and losses minimised. Buildings, bridges and roads are built to resist the effect of earthquakes. The infrastructure in such countries are highly sophisticated and their health care and medical services are immediately available in case of emergencies.

It is different, though, in developing countries. Many people die and constructions are easily destroyed. Buildings are usually erected in the cheapest possible way and cannot withstand the force of an earthquake. Thousands are left homeless, hungry and injured. The poor infrastructure prevents that aid reaches them soon enough. Corpses start decaying and drinking water is polluted, spreading disease which increases the number of deaths.

Activity 4:

To discuss the reason why people live in areas where earthquakes occur

[lo 2.2]

1. Why do people decide to live in areas where earthquakes occur? Take some time to think about this and then give your own opinion.

2. Where would you hide if an earthquake struck in your environment?

4. Precautionary measures: managing risk and reducing risk

Can earthquakes be forecast?

Unfortunately, this is not always possible. However, the earth’s crust is intensively studied and sensitive instruments register the slightest movement in the crust.

Scientists use special methods and apparatus, e.g. seismographs, to study and forecast earthquakes. A seismograph can detect any movement in the earth’s crust. When foreshocks occur scientists are able to detect activity in the earth’s crust and issue warnings in time. Some satellites are also equipped to pick up movement in the earth’s crust.

There are also other non-scientific signs in nature that, if observed in time, could help to forecast an earthquake, e.g.

  • a sudden significant change in the level of groundwater (e.g. in wells);
  • the sudden strange behaviour of animals.

If earthquakes could be forecast in time, warnings to evacuate the danger zones could be issued and so loss of life could be limited. Whether all people listen to such warnings is an open question.

Remember – not all earthquakes can be forecast. Some happen suddenly, without any foreshocks or other signs.

Activity 5:

To list emergency measures in case of an earthquake

[lo 2.3]

Imagine that you live in an area where earthquakes occur frequently (where there is a weak place in the earth’s crust). Draw up a list of emergency measures that should be applied before, during and after an earthquake.

Copy the world map from Figure 8 and indicate the areas where earthquakes occur on your own map. Then use red to colour in these areas.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.
Assessment standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
2.1 describes and explains how natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes and flooding occur, and their impact on human lives and socio-economic activities [people and places];2.2 investigates and explains why some people face a higher risk than others with respect to natural hazards [people and resources];2.3 identifies how risks and hazards can be managed [people and the environment].

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Geography grade 7' conversation and receive update notifications?