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Geography

Grade 5

The physical structure of south africa

Module 10

The changing landscape

The landscape as we see it with valleys, hills, lakes, dams, etc. changes constantly. The changes are caused by either people, or forces of nature.

R ivers

  • During the rainy season the water that falls on the earth, gathers in small streams and eventually become rivers that find a downhill path to the sea. The movement of the water over the soil not only takes the topsoil along, but also breaks down the soil and rocks into smaller particles. Over long periods the rivers become deeper and wider. Eventually valleys and ravines are formed. Think of the Fish River Canyon in Namibia.

E rosion

  • The onslaught by nature, e.g. frost, hail, snow and sun, causes rocks to become more porous. The rocks are eroded over a long period and small pieces break off. When the wind and the rain carry the particles away, we call the movement of the material erosion. The small particles are later deposited elsewhere. A new and fertile layer of soil is then formed.
  • When this process continues over a long period, the landscape changes. Valleys, hills and ravines are formed. The softer types of rock erode faster than the surrounding harder rock, therefore creating interesting landscapes, such as the table-top hills in the Great Karoo.

Volcanoes

  • The outermost layer of the earth is called the crust and consists of rocks. Deep inside the earth the heat is so intense that the rock melts and magma (molten rock) is formed. This boiling mass is always looking for a weak spot in the crust of the earth through which it can escape. When the molten rock reaches the surface of the earth, it is called lava. It cools down, coagulates and forms new rock, thus creating a new landscape. The crater of rock is sometimes so big that a high mountain is formed.

Faults

  • The crust of the earth is constantly exposed to thrust and tractive powers as a result of the unstable core of the earth. It sometimes happens that a part of the crust of the earth is pushed up from underneath and then protrudes above the rest of the landscape. The edge or slope of the earth’s crust where the movement took place is known as a fault. Sometimes the different rock layers underneath the crust of the earth are exposed.

People

  • People try to control their environment and constantly try to change it to comply with their needs.

Activity 1:

To write a short paragraph on a particular subject

[lo 2.3]

Write a short paragraph on how and why people constantly try to change the surrounding landscape.

Did you mention: housing; mining; agriculture; transport?

Activity 2:

To do research on certain topics

[lo 1.7; 2.3]

Choose one of the following ways in which people can influence the natural landscape indirectly. Pay a visit to the local library or consult other sources for more information and write a short report and present it to the class.

  • Deforestation
  • Soil erosion as a result of human activities
  • Vegetation is destroyed as a result of global warming
  • Mono-cropping
  • Waste products and its influence on vegetation

Assessment

LO 1

GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRY

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information (including graphs, maps and fieldwork outside the classroom) [finds sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 draws sketch maps and/or plans from field observation and measurements [works with sources];

  • uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].

LO 2

GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

The learner will be able to demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.

We know this when the learner:

2.1 identifies and describes major physical features of South Africa, including those of the home province [people and places];

2.2 identifies links between natural resources and economic activities in South Africa [people and resources];

2.3 describes ways in which the physical environment influences human activity and how human activity is influenced by the physical environment [people and the environment].

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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