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You depend on the resonating spaces for the quality of sound you produce.

The resonator cavities are the pharynx (throat), the mouth, the nasal passages and sinus cavities.

Breath excites the vocal cords, and the sound gains resonance in these spaces.

Resonance exercise:

  • Stand poised – arms relaxed at your sides.
  • Breathe in and out with your own natural breathing rhythm, a few times.
  • Inhale swiftly and silently through an open mouth.
  • Project your sounds across the room and say aloud ‘one’; inhale, one-two; inhale, one-two-three; and so on, up to ten.


Pitch, or tone, is the quality of the sound you make, the timbre of the voice.

Pitch exercise:

  • Speak the following line of dialogue with your jaw closed, but with your lips open:

I’ve just met a man with a lemon stuck in his ear!

  • The result will be nasal and woolly.
  • Now check that your mouth is open and relaxed.
  • Say the line again.
  • Speak the same line in as deep a voice as you can.
  • It will probably be a harsh gravely sound, because you’ve tucked your chin in and stuck your chest out.
  • Speak the line again, pinching your nostrils.
  • This will produce a comic unrecognisable honk.


Articulation is developed by means of vowels and consonants.

The vowels are: a e i o u

The consonants are the rest of the alphabet.

Exercises for the jaw, lips and tongue

The jaw

  • Waggle only your jaw from side to side, up and down, forwards and backwards.
  • Stretch your lips wide, and then purse them.
  • Push them up as far as possible, then down.
  • Repeat six times.

The tongue

  • Stick out your tongue, then withdraw it – repeat six times.
  • Protrude your tongue as far as possible and rotate it in both directions.
  • Try to touch the tip of your nose with the tip of your tongue.
  • Try to touch the point of your chin with your tongue.
  • With your lips wide open, protrude your tongue and bring up the sides, making it in a tube.
  • Repeat six times.

The sounds

Repeat these sounds as often as you can until you can say them clearly and audibly.

  • Hah Hoo Hah Hee Ha Hoo Hah Hee
  • Mah Nah Moo Noo May Nay Mee Nee
  • PahBah BahPah PahBah Bah Pah
  • KooGoo GooKoo KooGoo GooKoo
  • DayTay DayTay DayTay TayDay


Warming-up is not only being relaxed and having the body and imagination in good shape, but it also means gaining self confidence and getting to know your fellow learners at the same time.

Warm-up 1: Red, Blue, Yellow

  • Place chairs in a circle, leaving a space between each chair, and sit down.
  • Your educator will give each of you in the circle a colour – alternating between red and blue.
  • The purpose of this exercise is to exercise precise movement, with no fuss and in complete silence.
  • On the order red !, all red must rise and move to another chair.
  • On the order blue !, all the blues have to move to another chair.
  • On the order yellow !, everyone moves to another chair.
  • Vary the movement form slow motion to a fast reaction.
  • No contact may be made with other learners.

Activity 2:

To use an african story to develop a drama: the tortoise and the lizard

[lo 1.5]

  • Now that you have warmed up and your voice is fit for peak performance, you are going to create and perform your own drama based on an African story.
  • Your educator will read a story aloud. Listen carefully and picture what you hear in your mind. Try to imagine what the story will look like if you had to see it happen in front of your eyes.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11007/1.1
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