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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The development of medical science

Module 3

Pasteur and lister conquer germs

Viruses, germs and bacteria are invisible to the eye. They are present in the air that surrounds us. Scientists say that a virus is a million times smaller than a millimetre. Every day we inhale many viruses, but fortunately we do not always become ill. (What is a computer virus?)

The person who discovered the real cause of disease, was Louis Pasteur. He discovered that the air around us is full of germs - germs that are so small that they can only be seen under a powerful microscope. These germs cause foodstuffs to decay if they are not preserved in some way.

The discovery of a means of preservation, which made Pasteur famous, bears his name: pasteurization. He proved that food can be preserved for a long time if it is germ-free. He discovered that heating milk to just below boiling point and then cooling it immediately, killed the germs or bacteria in it. This process is called pasteurization and is still used on dairy farms.

Because of this discovery, nearly all types of food, e.g. meat, fish, vegetables and fruit, can be preserved germ-free in containers or tins. The food is cooked in the tin until it is free of germs and the tin is then sealed. This food is safe to keep for a long time.

Activity 1:

How to acquire and use sources

[lo 1.2, 2.1]

Class discussion

a) Use the following questions to open a discussion. Then you can use your own questions!

  • Which milk is the safest for drinking: milk bought in a container in a café or the delicious fresh milk bought on a farm straight from the cow? Why?
  • Say how would you make milk germ-free.
  • Examine five items of food in your house. Do the labels indicate that the contents has been pasteurized?
  • Why can tinned food be kept for such a long time?

b) Reasearch

The vaccine against the dreaded disease called rabies is one of Pasteur’s most important discoveries. He could not determine the origin of the disease because the virus was too small to be seen through his microscope. He produced vaccine for treating people who had been bitten by rabid dogs from the spinal marrow of contaminated rabbits.

On 6 July 1885 the vaccine was used on a nine-year-old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog three days earlier. The boy recovered. Another vaccine proved to be successful! Find out for yourself what happened then ….

Supply the following word(s) that helped you to acquire the rest of the information above:

Contents ____________________________

Index _______________________________

Activity 2:

To understand that different points of view on pasteur could be right or wrong

[lo 2.1]

Louis Pasteur wants to test this vaccine against rabies on a human being for the first time.

  • Explain, on his behalf, by means of the A.P.C. method, what the possibilities could be if the experiment is successful.
  • What will his alternatives be if the experiment fails?
  • What choice does Pasteur make?
  • What would you have done? Why?

Discuss the following in class and complete the assignments.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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