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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The development of medical science

Module 3

Pasteur and lister conquer germs

Viruses, germs and bacteria are invisible to the eye. They are present in the air that surrounds us. Scientists say that a virus is a million times smaller than a millimetre. Every day we inhale many viruses, but fortunately we do not always become ill. (What is a computer virus?)

The person who discovered the real cause of disease, was Louis Pasteur. He discovered that the air around us is full of germs - germs that are so small that they can only be seen under a powerful microscope. These germs cause foodstuffs to decay if they are not preserved in some way.

The discovery of a means of preservation, which made Pasteur famous, bears his name: pasteurization. He proved that food can be preserved for a long time if it is germ-free. He discovered that heating milk to just below boiling point and then cooling it immediately, killed the germs or bacteria in it. This process is called pasteurization and is still used on dairy farms.

Because of this discovery, nearly all types of food, e.g. meat, fish, vegetables and fruit, can be preserved germ-free in containers or tins. The food is cooked in the tin until it is free of germs and the tin is then sealed. This food is safe to keep for a long time.

Activity 1:

How to acquire and use sources

[lo 1.2, 2.1]

Class discussion

a) Use the following questions to open a discussion. Then you can use your own questions!

  • Which milk is the safest for drinking: milk bought in a container in a café or the delicious fresh milk bought on a farm straight from the cow? Why?
  • Say how would you make milk germ-free.
  • Examine five items of food in your house. Do the labels indicate that the contents has been pasteurized?
  • Why can tinned food be kept for such a long time?

b) Reasearch

The vaccine against the dreaded disease called rabies is one of Pasteur’s most important discoveries. He could not determine the origin of the disease because the virus was too small to be seen through his microscope. He produced vaccine for treating people who had been bitten by rabid dogs from the spinal marrow of contaminated rabbits.

On 6 July 1885 the vaccine was used on a nine-year-old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog three days earlier. The boy recovered. Another vaccine proved to be successful! Find out for yourself what happened then ….

Supply the following word(s) that helped you to acquire the rest of the information above:

Contents ____________________________

Index _______________________________

Activity 2:

To understand that different points of view on pasteur could be right or wrong

[lo 2.1]

Louis Pasteur wants to test this vaccine against rabies on a human being for the first time.

  • Explain, on his behalf, by means of the A.P.C. method, what the possibilities could be if the experiment is successful.
  • What will his alternatives be if the experiment fails?
  • What choice does Pasteur make?
  • What would you have done? Why?

Discuss the following in class and complete the assignments.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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