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Definition of terms

The following terms are relevant to this discussion: (1) culturally responsive leadership, (2) leadership for social justice, and (3) place-based education. Culturally responsive leadership involves providing leadership for teaching that recognizes students’ home cultures, maintains high academic expectations, and uses instruction that addresses the variety of educational needs of diverse learners (King, Artiles&Kozleski, 2009). Leadership for social justice has as its focus, equity. At its core, social justice has three goals; (a) raising academic achievement for all students, (b) preparing students to live as critical citizens, and (c) structuring schools with heterogeneous, inclusive environments (McKenzie et al., 2008). Place-based education Place-based education will not be examined independently within the literature review section as the review of culturally responsive leadership and the rural Appalachia model (Johnson et al., 2009) include this concept. focuses upon the use of students’ local political, social, cultural, natural, and economic environments to enhance learning (Smith, 2002). There are clear connections as well as overlap among these terms.

Literature review

Culturally responsive leadership

Culturally responsive leadership may provide some guidance in leading schools in rural Appalachia. The term culturally relevant pedagogy was used by Ladson-Billings in her classic book, The Dreamkeepers (1994). She called for a redesign of learning environments that would respond to the educational needs of diverse learners, in part, by incorporating students’ cultural backgrounds into their instruction. While cultural responsiveness is not exclusively applied to race, Ladson-Billings examined the teaching of African American students who were experiencing academic success (1995). Culturally responsive teaching today continues to focus upon race, but also, more broadly, upon ethnicity and language diverse students (King et al., 2009).

A culturally responsive approach could be employed in rural Appalachia. While the students of Appalachia are generally neither African American nor language diverse, it can be argued they live in a distinct culture. Appalachian students also share with African American and language diverse students a status within the larger culture that often devalues their home culture. Both the people and the natural resources of Appalachia have been exploited (Johnson, Shope,&Roush, 2009). A culturally responsive approach to teaching would seem appropriate as a means to meet the educational needs of Appalachian students and provide them with the means to enhance their social and economic futures.

Culturally responsive teaching requires culturally responsive leadership. Farmer and Higham (2007) proposed a design for university graduate programs that produce culturally responsive leaders. In support of the need for such programs they stated “personal conditioning and bias, coupled with firmly established institutional traditions, limit the development of culturally responsive leaders” (p. 3). They suggested changes to admission requirements, program design and curricular content. They argued that program curricula be infused with elements that require participants to examine culture in order to breakdown ethnocentric cultural bias.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
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industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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scanning tunneling microscope
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what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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