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In this paper, we discuss in particular detail the educational publishing project, Connexions , as an example of a new technology that is both a natural evolutionout of literacy and the printing press and a revolutionary change or paradigm shift that will be as disruptive as were writing andprinting. The reason we do this in a historical context is to develop Connexions in a deliberate way, to achieve the positive goals we currently envisage for education as well as generalinformation usage, and to use a strategy that will attempt to maximize the positive unintended consequences and minimize thenegative ones. We try to take a “holistic” approach, taking into account what goes on (or can go on) in the human brain, what goeson (or can go on) in individuals or small groups, and what can go on in large societies or cultures.

Because this short paper covers a large span of time, ideas, and history that cannot be fully developed, weprovide a fairly comprehensive set of references.

Literacy

The emergence of writing and literate activity some five thousand years ago transformed human life as profoundlyas the earlier revolutions of intensive agriculture and language. [Goody]

The earliest uses of writing were to record lists of inventories and of sale and purchase transactions. Later,writing served as a means of helping the memory of storytellers in the oral tradition—writing was used as a prompt, not as part of anintellectual or creative activity. The people who read used writing to help them remember stories they and their audiences alreadyknew. Only later did people read stories that writers had created, not merely recorded.

Without writing, the literate mind would not and could not think as it does, not only when engaged in writingbut normally even when it is composing its thoughts in oral form. More than any other single invention, writing has transformed humanconsciousness. [Ong, p. 78]

Resistance to change occurred even in the earliest stages of literacy. As intellectuals, leaders, andthinkers considered the merits of this new “technology” called writing and literacy, they predicted its potential shortcomings. Inthe Phaedrus , Plato has Socrates say that writing is inhuman, a pretender, establishing “outside the mind what in reality can beonly in the mind,” then adding that “writing weakens the mind.” Perhaps writing does weaken the memory, just as the calculator mayweaken the memorized knowledge of the multiplication tables or speed-dial may reduce the memory of telephone numbers. Experiencehas demonstrated, however, that some very positive personal and societal effects accompanied these “weakenings.”

Some of the dire predictions came true, of course, because they were grounded in what was known. The positivethings produced by literacy generally outweighed the negative but were often not predictable because nothing like them had ever existed. Literacy created a new culture, but it also destroyed partof the old one, and that should be kept in mind. This example illustrates the Law of Unintended Consequences .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A brave new digi-world and caribbean literacy : a search for solutions. OpenStax CNX. Apr 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10600/1.10
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