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The leadership model most closely linked to organizational culture is that of moral leadership. This modelassumes that the critical focus of leadership ought to be on the values, beliefs and ethics of leaders themselves. Authority andinfluence are to be derived from defensible conceptions of what is right or good (Leithwood et al, 1999, p. 10).

Sergiovanni (1984) says that“excellent schools have central zones composed of values and beliefs that takeon sacred or cultural characteristics”(p. 10). The moral dimension of leadership is based on“normative rationality; rationality based on what we believe and what we consider to be good”(Sergiovanni, 1991):

Moral leadership is consistent with organizational culture in that it is based on the

values, beliefs and attitudes of principals and other educational leaders. It focuses on the moral purpose ofeducation and on the behaviours to be expected of leaders operating within the moral domain. It also assumes that these values andbeliefs coalesce into shared norms and meanings that either shape or reinforce culture. The rituals and symbols associated with moralleadership support these values and underpin school culture. (p. 326)

Limitations of organizational culture

Cultural models add several useful elements to the analysis of school and college leadership and management.The focus on the informal dimension is a valuable counter to the rigid and official components of the formal models. By stressingthe values and beliefs of participants, cultural models reinforce the human aspects of management rather than their structuralelements. The emphasis on the symbols of the organization is also a valuable contribution to management theory while the moralleadership model provides a useful way of understanding what constitutes a values-based approach to leadership. However,cultural models do have three significant weaknesses:

1.There may be ethical dilemmas because cultural leadership may be regarded as the imposition of a cultureby leaders on other members of the organization. The search for a monoculture may mean subordinating the values and beliefs of someparticipants to those of leaders or the dominantgroup. Morgan (1997, p. 150-51) refers to“a process of ideological control”and warns of the risk of“manipulation.”

2.The cultural model may be unduly mechanistic, assuming that leaders can determine the culture of theorganization (Morgan, 1997). While they have influence over the evolution of culture by espousing desired values, they cannotensure the emergence of a monoculture. As we have seen, secondary schools and colleges may have several subcultures operating indepartments and other sections. This is not necessarily dysfunctional because successful subunits are vital components ofthriving institutions.

3.The cultural model’s focus on symbols such as rituals and ceremonies may mean that other elements oforganizations are underestimated. The symbols may misrepresent the reality of the school or college. Hoyle (1986, p. 166) refers to“innovation without change.”Schools may go through the appearance of change but the reality continues as before.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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