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(Bush, 2003, p. 65-67).

Participative leadership

Because policy is determined within a participative framework, the principal is expected to adoptparticipative leadership strategies. Heroic models of leadership are inappropriate when influence and power are widely distributedwithin the institution.“The collegial leader is at most a“first among equals”in an academic organisation supposedly run by professional experts . . . the collegial leader is not so much astar standing alone as the developer of consensus among the professionals who must share the burden of the decision.”(Baldridge et al, 1978, p. 45)

While transformational leadership is consistent with the collegial model, in that it assumes thatleaders and staff have shared values and common interests (Bush, 2003, p. 76), the leadership model most relevant to collegiality is“participative leadership,”which“assumes that the decision-making processes of the group ought to be the central focus of the group”(Leithwood et al, 1999, p. 12). This is a normative model, underpinned by three criteria (Leithwood et al, 1999):

  • Participation will increase school effectiveness.
  • Participation is justified by democratic principles.
  • Leadership is potentially available to any legitimate stakeholder. (p. 12)

Sergiovanni (1984) claims that a participative approach succeeds in“bonding”staff together and in easing the pressures on school principals.“The burdens of leadership will be less if leadership functions and roles are shared and if theconcept of leadership density were to emerge as a viable replacement for principal leadership”(p. 13).

Limitations of collegial models

Collegial models have been popular in the academic and official literature on educational Collegial modelshave been popular in the academic and official literature on educational management since the 1980s. However, their criticspoint to a number of limitations:

  • Collegial models are so strongly normative that they tend to obscure rather than portray reality. Precepts about the mostappropriate ways of managing educational institutions mingle with descriptions of behaviour. While collegiality is increasinglyadvocated, the evidence of its presence in schools and colleges tends to be sketchy and incomplete.“The collegial literature often confuses descriptive and normative enterprises . . . The collegialidea of round table decision making does not accurately reflect the actual processes in most institutions”(Baldridge et al, 1978, p. 33).

2.Collegial approaches to decision-making tend to be slow and cumbersome. When policy proposals require theapproval of a series of committees, the process is often tortuous and time consuming. Participants may have to endure many lengthymeetings before issues are resolved. This requires patience and a considerable investment of time. Several English primary schoolheads interviewed by Webb and Vulliamy (1996) refer to the time-consuming nature of meetings where“the discussion phase seemed to go on and on”(p. 445) and“I felt we weren’t getting anywhere”(p. 446).

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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