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(Bush, 2003, p. 65-67).

Participative leadership

Because policy is determined within a participative framework, the principal is expected to adoptparticipative leadership strategies. Heroic models of leadership are inappropriate when influence and power are widely distributedwithin the institution.“The collegial leader is at most a“first among equals”in an academic organisation supposedly run by professional experts . . . the collegial leader is not so much astar standing alone as the developer of consensus among the professionals who must share the burden of the decision.”(Baldridge et al, 1978, p. 45)

While transformational leadership is consistent with the collegial model, in that it assumes thatleaders and staff have shared values and common interests (Bush, 2003, p. 76), the leadership model most relevant to collegiality is“participative leadership,”which“assumes that the decision-making processes of the group ought to be the central focus of the group”(Leithwood et al, 1999, p. 12). This is a normative model, underpinned by three criteria (Leithwood et al, 1999):

  • Participation will increase school effectiveness.
  • Participation is justified by democratic principles.
  • Leadership is potentially available to any legitimate stakeholder. (p. 12)

Sergiovanni (1984) claims that a participative approach succeeds in“bonding”staff together and in easing the pressures on school principals.“The burdens of leadership will be less if leadership functions and roles are shared and if theconcept of leadership density were to emerge as a viable replacement for principal leadership”(p. 13).

Limitations of collegial models

Collegial models have been popular in the academic and official literature on educational Collegial modelshave been popular in the academic and official literature on educational management since the 1980s. However, their criticspoint to a number of limitations:

  • Collegial models are so strongly normative that they tend to obscure rather than portray reality. Precepts about the mostappropriate ways of managing educational institutions mingle with descriptions of behaviour. While collegiality is increasinglyadvocated, the evidence of its presence in schools and colleges tends to be sketchy and incomplete.“The collegial literature often confuses descriptive and normative enterprises . . . The collegialidea of round table decision making does not accurately reflect the actual processes in most institutions”(Baldridge et al, 1978, p. 33).

2.Collegial approaches to decision-making tend to be slow and cumbersome. When policy proposals require theapproval of a series of committees, the process is often tortuous and time consuming. Participants may have to endure many lengthymeetings before issues are resolved. This requires patience and a considerable investment of time. Several English primary schoolheads interviewed by Webb and Vulliamy (1996) refer to the time-consuming nature of meetings where“the discussion phase seemed to go on and on”(p. 445) and“I felt we weren’t getting anywhere”(p. 446).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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