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An alternative to ocean fishing is aquaculture , a method in which fish and shellfish are deliberately raised for food. There are two types of aquaculture: fish farming and fish ranching. With fish farming , the fish or shellfish (e.g. carp, catfish, oysters) are raised in closed ponds or tanks with a controlled environment. When they reach maturity they are harvested. Fish ranching is used with species such as salmon that live one part of their lives in freshwater and the other part in salt water ( anadromous species ). Salmon are raised in captivity for a few years and then released. They are harvested when they return to spawn. Some of the disadvantages of aquaculture include the need for supplying large amounts of food and water, and disposal of the large amounts of waste that are produced.

Algae into oil, bones into stones

Scientists and textbooks tend to separate biological and geological entities and processes, but the complex cycling of matter on Earth actually blurs those categories. Indeed, some of our most important energy and mineral resources have biological origins. As a consequence, the location and size of these resources depends upon the distribution and productivity of ancient habitats.


Petroleum is a generic term for oil and natural gas, and their products. Petroleum doesn’t look organic, but it is derived from the remains of countless marine organisms. It begins with blooms of microscopic algae and other plankton in oceans and large lakes. These organisms sink when they die, and if the seafloor or lakebed they land on has low oxygen and high sedimentation, they can be buried in mud before they decompose. At depth and over time, heat and pressure begin to convert the organic molecules into hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons begin to liquefy into oil at 50-60° C, and vaporize into methane at 100° C. If the temperature exceeds 200° C, they break down and disappear.

Where petroleum is abundant, it can be pumped from below ground and refined into fuels such as gasoline, propane, jet fuel, and heating oil, and into tar and asphalt. Petroleum is also a component of plastics, dyes, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, compact discs, cosmetics, and explosives.

Petroleum is extremely useful, but it is unevenly distributed around the world, and reserves are being depleted rapidly. Petroleum formation is a complex process that requires just the right biological conditions to produce sufficient plankton, and just the right geologic conditions to preserve and cook the organic matter. The entire sequence takes a million years or more. Because many countries, like the United States, have very limited deposits, and because all petroleum reserves are being drained rapidly, conservation and alternatives are gaining importance. For instance, worn highway asphalt is now being reprocessed and replaced rather than discarded. Plastic recycling is becoming more widespread. Wind, solar, nuclear, geothermal, and hydroelectric power is increasing.


Limestone is a type of rock made of calcium carbonate. Although few things seem less life-like than rocks, most limestone is actually biogenic, formed from the shells and skeletons and excretions of marine invertebrates. In the shallows around tropical islands and continents, warm clear water, strong sunlight, and abundant nutrients allow mollusks, crustaceans, and plankton to flourish. When these creatures die or molt, their hard parts fall to the sea floor. As the remains pile up, the weight of the overlying debris compacts the deepest layers. Cements precipitate out of groundwater, fusing the individual fragments into solid rock. Some limestone goes no further, so that the component shells remain distinct and clearly visible. In other limestone, subject to more intense heat and pressure, the organic material is recrystallized into a featureless mass.

Limestone is widely used in industrial processes. Crushed limestone is a component of cement, paper, plastic, and paint, and is used to adjust the pH of soil and water. Whole limestone that retains visible shell material is used for decorative stonework. Common blackboard chalk is a limestone made from microscopic skeletons.

Limestone is extremely abundant, making up about 10-15% of all sedimentary rocks on Earth, so that even though it is heavily used, its reserve are not being significantly depleted.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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