# 0.7 Generalizations of the basic multiresolution wavelet system  (Page 12/28)

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Tian and Wells [link] , [link] have constructed biorthogonal wavelet systems with both zero scaling function and wavelet moments. Closed form solutionsfor these biorthogonal coiflets have been found. They have approximation properties similar to the coiflets, and the filter coefficients are dyadicrationals as are the splines. The filter coefficients for these biorthogonal Coiflets are listed in [link] . Some members of this family are also in the spline family described earlier.

## Lifting construction of biorthogonal systems

We have introduced several families of biorthogonal systems and their design methods. There is another method called a lifting scheme , which is very simple and general. It has a long history

[link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , and has been systematically developed recently [link] , [link] . The key idea is tobuild complicated biorthogonal systems using simple and invertible stages. The first stage does nothing but to separate even and oddsamples, and it is easily invertible. The structure is shown in [link] , and is called the lazy wavelet transform in [link] .

 $\sqrt{2}h$ $\sqrt{2}\stackrel{˜}{h}$ $1,1$ $1,1$ $1/2,1,1/2$ $-1/4,1/2,3/2,1/2,-1/4$ $3/8,1,3/4,0,-1/8$ $3/64,0,-3/16,3/8,41/32,3/4,-3/16,-1/8,3/64$ $-1/16,0,9/16,1,9/16,0,-1/16$ $-1/256,0,9/128,-1/16,-63/256,9/16,87/64,\cdots$

After splitting the data into two parts, we can predict one part from the other, and keep only the prediction error, as in [link] . We can reconstruct the data by recomputing the prediction and then add back theprediction. In [link] , $s$ and $t$ are prediction filters.

By concatenating simple stages, we can implement the forward and inverse wavelet transforms as in [link] . It is also called the ladder structure , and the reason for the name is clear from the figure. Clearly, the system is invertible, and thusbiorthogonal. Moreover, it has been shown the orthogonal wavelet systems can also be implemented using lifting [link] . The advantages of lifting are numerous:

• Lifting steps can be calculated inplace. As seen in [link] , the prediction outputs based on one channel of the data can be added to or subtracted from the data in other channels,and the results can be saved in the same place in the second channel. No auxiliary memory is needed.
• The predictors $s$ and $t$ do not have to be linear. Nonlinear operations like the medium filter or rounding can be used, and the systemremains invertible. This allows a very simple generalization to nonlinear wavelet transform or nonlinear multiresolution analysis.
• The design of biorthogonal systems boils down to the design of the predictors. This may lead to simple approaches that do not relay on theFourier transform [link] , and can be generalized to irregular samples or manifolds.
• For biorthogonal systems, the lifting implementations require less numerical operations than direct implementations [link] . For orthogonal cases,the lifting schemes have the computational complexity similar to the lattice factorizations, which is almost half of the directimplementation.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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