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The final survey asked for summative reactions and recommendations from students. The summative responses were similar to responses from earlier surveys. Students felt positive about “insights” and “confidence” they gained from working on “real-world” issues. They also enjoyed working together with cohort members to complete tasks. Several students mentioned that they had gained personal insights into their strengths and weaknesses as an aspiring administrator. Two recommendations were offered by multiple students; (a) increase the number of practice field activities and, (b) add more structure so that students would know better what was expected from them in each activity.

Lessons learned

The students’ reactions and instructors’ experiences with this course provides lessons that can enhance the effective use of leadership practice field activities to prepare aspiring school leaders. Following are a few of those lessons:

  • People like choice and control. When students were given the opportunity to offer input into the design of this course, they not only provided appropriate suggestions, they engaged more fully in the course because what they (the students) said, in their words, “mattered”.
  • Instruction needs to match students’ learning styles. Only one student in this course identified himself or herself as an auditory learner. Eleven indicated a preference for hands-on learning. Clearly, a lecture format would have been a poor choice.
  • Students need to be able to generalize skills to contexts other than those specific situations in the practice field activities. Providing time for individual and group reflection on the activities can facilitate this generalization.
  • Students want (need) specific and frequent feedback.
  • Explicitly teaching skills prior to asking students to use those skills in a practice field activity will enhance the activity. Don’t assume aspiring principals have the necessary group process, decision-making, problem solving, and communication skills.
  • With a framework for designing the instructional activities of the course, student input can be incorporated, and students can be given the structure they need.

Using leadership practice field activities is a promising instructional strategy that is viewed as effective by students and instructors. While most professions offer aspiring members opportunities to practice, aspiring school principals are often lacking this opportunity (Creighton, 2005). Properly structured, the leadership practice field can give aspiring principals the chance to engage in “real” activities in a safe environment where skills can be developed. The result will be new assistant principals and principals with greater skill and confidence to handle the job they will face daily.


Council of Chief State School Officers, (2008). Educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC 2008. Washington, D.C.: CCSSO.

Creighton, T. (2005, June 22). Toward a Leadership Practice Field . Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m12743/1.8/

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nature and context of educational administration. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11214/1.3
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