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Saxony served as a battleground for many of the Prussian campaigns and in the Second Silesian War of 1744 Frederick II took 80,000 men through Saxony to invade Bohemia.

Shortly thereafter Saxony joined an alliance with Austria, England and Holland against Prussia, again on the wrong side, so that at the Treaty of Dresden, Saxony was forced to pay Prussia 1,000,000 rix dollars. Once again in the Third Silesian War (the Seven Years War) Frederick invaded Saxony with 67,000 men and defeated the combined Austrians and Saxons, taking 18,000 of the latter as prisoners. At the final peace, however, the original status of Saxony was preserved. In the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778) Saxony even joined Prussia, with Prince Henry joining Frederick in another invasion of Bohemia, but no real battles with the Austrians developed. For the remainder of the century, Saxony continued to oppose the grandiose schemes of Emperor Joseph.


In this century Hanover, in northern Germany, had about as much power as Denmark, Prussia or Saxony. Its status was helped when George, the Elector of Hanover, became George I of England. He never did like the English, nor they him, although they would take any sovereign Protestant over a Catholic. George spent most of his time in Hanover and used the English navy and money to try to make Sweden negotiate peace with Denmark and the German states on the Baltic. (Ref. 131 )

Lesser states of germany

Like Bavaria, Baden and Wuerttenberg became battlefields at the end of the century as the French forces fought Austria. Throughout these years, although their princes had difficulty acknowledging it, these lesser states of Germany lost more and more power and influence. The Rhineland of west Germany became the first industrial area, with the first steam engine installed in a lead mine near Duesseldorf in the Duchy of Berg in 1751. (Ref. 8 )

Austria | hungary | czechoslovakia

Although all German states were nominally subject to the Holy Roman Empire, the real heart was the Austro-Hungary-Bohemia region, ruled by the Habsburgs in Vienna. In 1711 Austria lost 300,000 people to the Black Death and another Turkish army was near their border. The latter were put to rout by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who had become a great militarist for the Habsburgs. His success at this time was in part due to Austrian cavalry using fine Arabian horses. (Ref. 260 ) Emperor Joseph I, the elder son of Leopold, had a premature death and Karl (Charles), trained to become king of Spain, now had to be Austria's emperor as Karl (Charles) VI. Raised as a Spaniard, he remained such. The Spanische Reitschule (Spanish Riding Academy) is a remnant of his Spanish court. His death in 1740 marked the end of the male line of the Austrian Habsburgs, but it was the beginning of Austria's greatest era. (Ref. 181 ) Interpreting Karl's death as indicating a coming weakness in the empire, Frederick II of Prussia was tempted to move on Silesia for the First Silesian War

The Silesian wars between 1740 and 1745 were actually part of what is often called the War of the Austrian Succession, as a coalition of European powers tried to block the accession of Maria Theresa
. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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