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Assuming that a society covers its online publishing costs by sales to its core markets, it makes sense to assess the profitability of sales to any new markets taking into account only the incremental marketing, sales, and fulfillment costs of reaching those new subscribers. Otherwise, if a society were to consider all of its fixed first-copy costs in determining profitability, it might forgo additional revenue without reducing its actual operating costs. For a primer on these issues, see Dryburgh (2003).

This frees a society from the need to allocate fully loaded online costs across all its content offerings to all market segments. However, it does require that the society clearly define what constitutes its core markets, to which it will allocate shared costs, versus marginal markets, which would only bear the costs exclusive to themselves. This definition will be critical to the society’s ability to assess the relative attractiveness of various market offerings.

The core markets for many societies will comprise the society’s members and four-year college and university institutional libraries in mature markets (typically North America and Western Europe). These core markets (either separately or together) need to generate sufficient revenue to cover all of the society’s shared operating costs, including content creation and online distribution. Other markets—for example, two-year colleges, special libraries, museums, public libraries, and four-year institutional libraries in emerging or underserved markets—may then be treated as incremental, and their profitability may be evaluated taking into account only those costs incurred in reaching and serving those markets.

The above discussion of online cost allocation and marginal markets is also relevant to a society’s consideration of tiered pricing approaches, consortia sales, and participation in online aggregations, discussed in Chapter Five, “Consortia Sales and Aggregations.”

Less developed countries

Although it will not increase a journal’s revenue, a society might expand access to its journal by providing free or substantially discounted online access to less developed countries (LDCs). Publishers identify recipients of LDC free and discounted access using a variety of methods. Some publishers use schedules of countries developed by the World Bank, the United Nations, OECD, or other agencies; and others identify recipients based on existing programs (e.g., HINARI, AGORA, HighWire, etc.). Extending free access to libraries in the world’s poorest countries supports a society’s mission to advance knowledge in its field, while in most cases exposing the society to little or no revenue risk. Increasing access to journal content for research and teaching communities in LDCs will be especially important for societies representing disciplines engaged in cultural, historical, or scientific studies of such regions.

There may be a library-sponsored program designed to increase LDC access to online peer-reviewed journals in the society’s field. Such programs include HINARI (biomedical fields), (External Link) AGORA (agriculture), (External Link) OARE (environmental sciences), (External Link) and PERI (sciences, social sciences, and humanities). (External Link) . For a list of programs intended to deliver peer-reviewed journals to developing nations, see (External Link) .

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, Transitioning a society journal online: a guide to financial and strategic issues. OpenStax CNX. Aug 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11222/1.1
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