# 5.10 Limits  (Page 2/5)

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## Left hand limit or left limit

Left hand limit is an estimate of function value from a close point on the left of test point. It answer : what would be function value – not what is - at the test point as we approach to it from left? Symbolically, we represent this limit by putting a “minus” sign following test point “a” as “a-“.

$\underset{x\to a-}{\overset{}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)={L}_{l}$

In terms of delta – epsilon definition, we write :

${L}_{l}-\delta

Graphically, we represent left limit by a curve which points towards limiting value from left terminating with an empty small circle at the test point. The empty circle denotes the limiting value. Since it is an estimate based on nature of graph – not actual function value, it is shown empty. In case, function value is equal to left limit, then circle is filled. If limit approaches infinity, then we show a graph with out terminating circle, approaching an asymptote towards either positive or negative infinity.

## Right hand limit or right limit

Right hand limit is an estimate of function value from a close point on right of test point. It asnwers : what would be function value – not what is - at the test point as we approach to it from right? Symbolically, we represent this limit by putting a “plus” sign following test point “a” as “a+“.

$\underset{x\to a+}{\overset{}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)={L}_{r}$

In terms of delta – epsilon definition, we write :

${L}_{l}-\delta

Graphically, we represent right limit by a curve which points towards limiting value from right terminating with an empty small circle at the test point. If limit approaches infinity, then we show a graph with out terminating circle, approaching an asymptote towards either positive or negative infinity.

## Limit at a point

Limit is an estimate of function value from close points from either side of test point. If left and right limits approach same limiting value, then limit at the point exists and is equal to the common value. Clearly, if left and right limits are not equal, then we can not assign an unique value to the estimate. Clearly, limit of a function answers : what would be function value – not what is - at the test point as we approach to it from either direction? Symbolically, we represent this limit as :

$\underset{x\to a}{\overset{}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)={L}_{l}={L}_{r}=L$

In terms of delta – epsilon definition, we write :

$L-\delta

Graphically, we represent the limit by a pair of curves which point towards limiting value from left and right terminating with a common empty small circle at the test point. If limit approaches infinity, then we show a graph with out terminating circle, approaching an asymptote from either direction in the direction of either positive or negative infinity.

## Limit and continuity

It has been emphasized that limit is an estimate of function value based on function rule at a point. This estimate is not function value. Function value is defined by the definition of function at that point. However, if function is continuous from the neighboring point to the test point, then limit should be equal to function value as well. Consider modulus function :

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
What is power set
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x

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