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PGD has raised ethical issues. The technique can be used to determine the gender of the embryo and thus can be used to select embryos of one gender in preference of the other in the context of “ family balancing .” It may be possible to make other "social selection" choices in the future. While controversial, this approach is less destructive than fetal deselection during the pregnancy.

Costs are substantial and insurance coverage may not be available. Thus PGD widens the gap between people who can afford the procedure versus a majority of patients who may benefit but cannot afford the service.

PGD has the potential to screen for genetic issues unrelated to medical necessity . The prospect of a “ designer baby ” is closely related to the PGD technique.

By relying on the result of one cell from the multi-cell embryo, it assumed that this cell is representative of the remainder of the embryo. This may not be the case as the incidence of mosaicism is often relatively high. On occasion, PGD may result in a false negative result leading to the acceptance of an abnormal embryo, or in a false positive result leading to the deselection of a normal embryo.

Since PGD and PGH are procedures that can weed out genetically defective human pre-embryos before they have a chance start a pregnancy, the procedure is usually requested by prospective parents who are concerned about passing a serious genetically-based disease or disorder to their child.

Typically,

  • one or both partners have been genetically screened previously, and found to be a carrier; or
  • one or both partners are from a human population known to have a high incidence of a genetically-based disease or disorder.

If an embryo is found to be genetically defective, it is normally destroyed. This produces a very serious concern for many pro-life supporters who believe that every pre-embryo, embryo and fetus is a human person. Destruction of a pre-embryo is considered a form of murder.

However, there are a number of arguments to support PGD:

  • Scientifically, if to combine presently available DNA analysis techniques for screening samples taken both from parents at risk and from sperm/egg bank and IVF, one can produce healthy babies both phenotypically and genotypically. At the same time the disease mutation alleles can be gradually removed from human populations.
  • Financially, in comparison with the costly PGD, the above-mentioned approach would considerably reduce the cost for the couples at risk.
  • Ethically, it is suggested to keep and apply the ethical regulations at present used for IVF and for other human DNA analysis.

Lecture 36. genetic testing and pharmacogenomics

Genetic testing

Genetic tests, also called Gene tests or DNA-based tests, the newest and most sophisticated of the techniques used to test for genetic disorders, involve direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic examination of stained or fluorescent chromosomes. Genetic tests are used for several reasons, including:

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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