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PGD has raised ethical issues. The technique can be used to determine the gender of the embryo and thus can be used to select embryos of one gender in preference of the other in the context of “ family balancing .” It may be possible to make other "social selection" choices in the future. While controversial, this approach is less destructive than fetal deselection during the pregnancy.

Costs are substantial and insurance coverage may not be available. Thus PGD widens the gap between people who can afford the procedure versus a majority of patients who may benefit but cannot afford the service.

PGD has the potential to screen for genetic issues unrelated to medical necessity . The prospect of a “ designer baby ” is closely related to the PGD technique.

By relying on the result of one cell from the multi-cell embryo, it assumed that this cell is representative of the remainder of the embryo. This may not be the case as the incidence of mosaicism is often relatively high. On occasion, PGD may result in a false negative result leading to the acceptance of an abnormal embryo, or in a false positive result leading to the deselection of a normal embryo.

Since PGD and PGH are procedures that can weed out genetically defective human pre-embryos before they have a chance start a pregnancy, the procedure is usually requested by prospective parents who are concerned about passing a serious genetically-based disease or disorder to their child.


  • one or both partners have been genetically screened previously, and found to be a carrier; or
  • one or both partners are from a human population known to have a high incidence of a genetically-based disease or disorder.

If an embryo is found to be genetically defective, it is normally destroyed. This produces a very serious concern for many pro-life supporters who believe that every pre-embryo, embryo and fetus is a human person. Destruction of a pre-embryo is considered a form of murder.

However, there are a number of arguments to support PGD:

  • Scientifically, if to combine presently available DNA analysis techniques for screening samples taken both from parents at risk and from sperm/egg bank and IVF, one can produce healthy babies both phenotypically and genotypically. At the same time the disease mutation alleles can be gradually removed from human populations.
  • Financially, in comparison with the costly PGD, the above-mentioned approach would considerably reduce the cost for the couples at risk.
  • Ethically, it is suggested to keep and apply the ethical regulations at present used for IVF and for other human DNA analysis.

Lecture 36. genetic testing and pharmacogenomics

Genetic testing

Genetic tests, also called Gene tests or DNA-based tests, the newest and most sophisticated of the techniques used to test for genetic disorders, involve direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic examination of stained or fluorescent chromosomes. Genetic tests are used for several reasons, including:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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