# 0.3 Genetics in clasical understanding  (Page 5/6)

 Page 5 / 6

## Human polygenic traits include:

1. 1. Height
5. 5. Intelligence.
6. 6. Skin Color.
7. 7. Many forms of behavior.

Click here to see Genetic Heterogeneity, Twinnings and Sibblings described by MITOPENCOURSEWARE.

## Lecture 32. probability and pedigrees

In Mendel’s time he used statistics to account for his observations on his experiments on peas, and, thanks to the results he abtained, he could formulate his two famous laws of genetics-- the Law of segregation and the Law of independent assortment, which were based on statistical segregation ratio 3:1, 9:3:3:1, 1:1:1:1 etc…

Nowadays in genetic research and especially in medical genetic counseling, statistics is needed for calculating the risks of genetic diseases in human pedigrees. The risks in these cases are expressed in terms of so-called probability.

The probability of an event is the chance that it will happen. The probability of tossing a coin to land heads up is roughly ½.

• The probability of an impossible event is 0.
• the probability of a certain event is 1.
• If the probability of event x is p then the probability of 'not x' is 1-p.
• The probability of two independent events ocurring at the same time is the product of their two indivdual probabilities.

So, for example, in the cross above, in the F2 the

• probability of a wrinkled seed is ¼; the probability of a green seed is also ¼, and the probability of being both green and wrinkled is therefore ¼ x ¼ = 1/16.
• The probability of being not wrinkled (i.e. smooth) is 1-¼ = ¾. The probability of being both smooth and green is therefore ¾ x ¼ = 3/16 and so on.
• In the example below about the coefficient of inbreeding of children from first cousin marriages, we considered a number of probabilities of ½ which we multiplied together to reach a final probability of 1/16 that any gene was homozygous by descent.

## Autosomal recessive

A recessive trait will only manifest itself when homozygous. If it is a severe condition, it will be unlikely that homozygotes will live to reproduce, and thus most occurrences of the condition will be in matings between two heterozygotes (or carriers). An autosomal recessive condition may be transmitted through a long line of carriers before, by ill chance, two carriers mate. Then there will be a ¼ chance that any child will be affected. The pedigree will therefore often only have one 'sibship' with affected members.

If the parents are related to each other, perhaps by being cousins, there is an increased risk that any gene present in a child may have two alleles identical by descent. The degree of risk that both alleles of a pair in a person are descended from the same recent common ancestor is the degree of inbreeding of the person. Let us examine b) in the figure above.

Considering any child of a first cousin mating, we can trace through the pedigree the chance that the other allele is the same by common descent. Let us consider any child of generation IV, any gene which came from the father, III3 had a half chance of having come from grandmother II2, a further half chance of being also present in her sister, grandmother II4 a further half a chance of having been passed to mother III4 and finally a half chance of being transmitted into the same child we started from. A total risk of ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/16.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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