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    Human polygenic traits include:

  1. 1. Height
  2. 2. SLE (Lupus). (Click here for an article about lupus and genetics.)
  3. 3. Weight. (Click here for an article about obesity and genetics.)
  4. 4. Eye Color. (Click here for an article about eye color.)
  5. 5. Intelligence.
  6. 6. Skin Color.
  7. 7. Many forms of behavior.

Click here to see Genetic Heterogeneity, Twinnings and Sibblings described by MITOPENCOURSEWARE.

Lecture 32. probability and pedigrees

In Mendel’s time he used statistics to account for his observations on his experiments on peas, and, thanks to the results he abtained, he could formulate his two famous laws of genetics-- the Law of segregation and the Law of independent assortment, which were based on statistical segregation ratio 3:1, 9:3:3:1, 1:1:1:1 etc…

Nowadays in genetic research and especially in medical genetic counseling, statistics is needed for calculating the risks of genetic diseases in human pedigrees. The risks in these cases are expressed in terms of so-called probability.

The probability of an event is the chance that it will happen. The probability of tossing a coin to land heads up is roughly ½.

  • The probability of an impossible event is 0.
  • the probability of a certain event is 1.
  • If the probability of event x is p then the probability of 'not x' is 1-p.
  • The probability of two independent events ocurring at the same time is the product of their two indivdual probabilities.

So, for example, in the cross above, in the F2 the

  • probability of a wrinkled seed is ¼; the probability of a green seed is also ¼, and the probability of being both green and wrinkled is therefore ¼ x ¼ = 1/16.
  • The probability of being not wrinkled (i.e. smooth) is 1-¼ = ¾. The probability of being both smooth and green is therefore ¾ x ¼ = 3/16 and so on.
  • In the example below about the coefficient of inbreeding of children from first cousin marriages, we considered a number of probabilities of ½ which we multiplied together to reach a final probability of 1/16 that any gene was homozygous by descent.

Autosomal recessive

A recessive trait will only manifest itself when homozygous. If it is a severe condition, it will be unlikely that homozygotes will live to reproduce, and thus most occurrences of the condition will be in matings between two heterozygotes (or carriers). An autosomal recessive condition may be transmitted through a long line of carriers before, by ill chance, two carriers mate. Then there will be a ¼ chance that any child will be affected. The pedigree will therefore often only have one 'sibship' with affected members.

a) A 'typical' autosomal recessive pedigree and b) An autosomal pedigree with inbreeding
If the parents are related to each other, perhaps by being cousins, there is an increased risk that any gene present in a child may have two alleles identical by descent. The degree of risk that both alleles of a pair in a person are descended from the same recent common ancestor is the degree of inbreeding of the person. Let us examine b) in the figure above.

Considering any child of a first cousin mating, we can trace through the pedigree the chance that the other allele is the same by common descent. Let us consider any child of generation IV, any gene which came from the father, III3 had a half chance of having come from grandmother II2, a further half chance of being also present in her sister, grandmother II4 a further half a chance of having been passed to mother III4 and finally a half chance of being transmitted into the same child we started from. A total risk of ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/16.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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