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A gene, a unit of hereditary information, is a stretch of DNA sequence, encoding information in a four-letter language in which each letter represents one of the nucleotide bases. Much of the information stored in stretches of DNA sequence is subsequently expressed as another class of biopolymers, the proteins. 

Work on cytology in the late 1800s had shown that each living thing has a characteristic set of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. During the same period, biochemical studies indicated that the nuclear materials that make up the chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins. In the first four decades of the 20th century, many scientists believed that protein carried the genetic code, and DNA was merely a supporting "scaffold." Just the opposite proved to be true. Work by Avery and Hershey, in the 1940s and 1950s, proved that DNA is the genetic molecule.

Work done in the 1960s and 1970s showed that each chromosome is essentially a package for one very long, continuous strand of the DNA. In higher organisms, structural proteins, some of which are histones, provide a scaffold upon which DNA is built into a compact chromosome. The DNA strand is wound around histone cores, which, in turn, are looped and fixed to specific regions of the chromosome.

Lecture 3. genes are made of dna or rna

Structure of dna

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is composed of building blocks called nucleotides consisting of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Phosphates and sugars of adjacent nucleotides link to form a long polymer. It was showed that the ratios of A - to T and G – to - C are constant in allliving things. X-ray crystallography provided the final clue that the DNA molecule is a double helix, shaped like a twisted ladder.

In 1953, the race to determine how these pieces fit together in a three-dimensional structure was won by James Watson and Francis Crick at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England. They showed that alternating deoxyribose and phosphate molecules form the twisted uprights of the DNA ladder. The rungs of the ladder are formed by complementary pairs of nitrogen bases - A always paired with T and G always paired with C.

Base pairs bond the double helix together. The "beginning" of a strand of a DNA molecule is definedas 5'. The "end" of the strand of A DNA molecule is defined as 3'. The 5' and 3' terms refer to the position of the nucleotide base, relative to the sugar molecule in the DNA backbone, which is make up by the phosphodiester bonds linking between the 3' carbon atom and the 5' carbon of the sugar deoxyribose (in DNA) or ribose (in RNA).

The two strands in a double helix are oriented in opposite directions.

Each chromosome is composed of a single DNA molecule.  Our DNA contains greater than 3 billion base pairs--an enormous amount by any measure.  All of this information must be organized in such a manner that it can be packaged inside the nucleus of the cell.  To accomplish this, DNA is complexed with histones to form chromatin.  Histones are special proteins that the DNA molecule coils around to become more condensed.  The chromatin then becomes coiled upon itself, which ultimately forms chromosomes.  

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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