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A gene, a unit of hereditary information, is a stretch of DNA sequence, encoding information in a four-letter language in which each letter represents one of the nucleotide bases. Much of the information stored in stretches of DNA sequence is subsequently expressed as another class of biopolymers, the proteins. 

Work on cytology in the late 1800s had shown that each living thing has a characteristic set of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. During the same period, biochemical studies indicated that the nuclear materials that make up the chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins. In the first four decades of the 20th century, many scientists believed that protein carried the genetic code, and DNA was merely a supporting "scaffold." Just the opposite proved to be true. Work by Avery and Hershey, in the 1940s and 1950s, proved that DNA is the genetic molecule.

Work done in the 1960s and 1970s showed that each chromosome is essentially a package for one very long, continuous strand of the DNA. In higher organisms, structural proteins, some of which are histones, provide a scaffold upon which DNA is built into a compact chromosome. The DNA strand is wound around histone cores, which, in turn, are looped and fixed to specific regions of the chromosome.

Lecture 3. genes are made of dna or rna

Structure of dna

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is composed of building blocks called nucleotides consisting of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Phosphates and sugars of adjacent nucleotides link to form a long polymer. It was showed that the ratios of A - to T and G – to - C are constant in allliving things. X-ray crystallography provided the final clue that the DNA molecule is a double helix, shaped like a twisted ladder.

In 1953, the race to determine how these pieces fit together in a three-dimensional structure was won by James Watson and Francis Crick at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England. They showed that alternating deoxyribose and phosphate molecules form the twisted uprights of the DNA ladder. The rungs of the ladder are formed by complementary pairs of nitrogen bases - A always paired with T and G always paired with C.

Base pairs bond the double helix together. The "beginning" of a strand of a DNA molecule is definedas 5'. The "end" of the strand of A DNA molecule is defined as 3'. The 5' and 3' terms refer to the position of the nucleotide base, relative to the sugar molecule in the DNA backbone, which is make up by the phosphodiester bonds linking between the 3' carbon atom and the 5' carbon of the sugar deoxyribose (in DNA) or ribose (in RNA).

The two strands in a double helix are oriented in opposite directions.

Each chromosome is composed of a single DNA molecule.  Our DNA contains greater than 3 billion base pairs--an enormous amount by any measure.  All of this information must be organized in such a manner that it can be packaged inside the nucleus of the cell.  To accomplish this, DNA is complexed with histones to form chromatin.  Histones are special proteins that the DNA molecule coils around to become more condensed.  The chromatin then becomes coiled upon itself, which ultimately forms chromosomes.  

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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