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There are two kinds of tetrads in fungi: ordered and unordered tetrads. Ordered tetrads contain the spores (the products of a single meiosis) inside the sac (ascus) in a linear order according to the moving behaviour of chromosomes in meiosis. The tetrads of the kind are available in Neurospora crasa, for example. Unordered tetrads contain the spores inside the ascus in a disorder without any sequence, which are available, for example, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic analysis of ordered tetrads technically give more information than that of unordered tetrads. A demonstration of genetic analysis in ordered tetrads is given in MITOPENCOURSEWARE ( PDF ).

Lecture 28. human dna polymorphisms

One of the most important tools underlying the revolution in medical genetics is the ability to visualize sequence differences directly in DNA. When studied in the context of a population, these differences in DNA sequences are called polymorphisms; they may occur in coding regions (exons) or noncoding regions of genes. The ability to visualize thousands of DNA polymorphisms has made possible family studies for tracking genes of medical importance. This technique has located and identified genes for many disorders with a clear pattern of mendelian inheritance, such as cystic fibrosis, the inherited muscular dystrophies, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. Methods that exploit genetic polymorphism will also be essential for finding genes that predispose people to more common conditions in which inheritance patterns are complex, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertension.

DNA polymorphisms are also playing a crucial part in unraveling the genetic basis of tumor formation and progression in cancer. They provide markers for the loss of specific chromosomal segments during the evolution of a tumor. DNA polymorphisms have already been crucial in the identification of genes important for susceptibility to common forms of cancer, such as colon cancer, as well as susceptibility to less common childhood tumors, such as retinoblastoma and Wilms' tumor.

The most useful DNA sequence polymorphisms have many alternative forms. The value of highly variable DNA sequences as genetic markers rests on straightforward principles. Every person carries two copies of each chromosome except the sex chromosomes. If a DNA polymorphism is to be useful in analyzing the transmission of the two chromosomes in a family or the loss of one of the chromosomes during tumorigenesis, then the DNA copies at the polymorphic site of the person under study must be different in the two chromosomes ( Figure 1A ), Figure 1B ), Figure 1C ), and Figure 1D ). The likelihood that a given person will have different DNA sequences at the polymorphic site directly determines the usefulness of that site in genetic studies. Chromosomal sites at which the DNA sequences can have many alternative forms are thus ideal sites for genetic markers. At these sites, a person is most likely to carry two alternative DNA sequences, accurately marking the two alternative chromosomes.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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