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Lecture 1. genetics is a science of genes

Since the beginning of human history, people have wondered how traits are inherited from one generation to the next. Although children often look more like one parent than the other, most offspring seem to be a blend of the characteristics of both parents. Centuries of breeding of domestic plants and animals had shown that useful traits - speed in horses, strength in oxen, and larger fruits in crops - can be accentuated by controlled mating. However, there was no scientific way to predict the outcome of a cross between two particular parents.

It wasn't until 1865 that an Augustinian monk named Gregor Mendel found that individual traits are determined by discrete "factors," later known as genes, which are inherited from the parents. His rigorous approach transformed agricultural breeding from an art to a science. However, Mendel’s work was not appreciated immediately.

That’s why the science of genetics really began with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work at the turn of the 20th century, and the next 40 years or so saw the elucidation of the principles of inheritance and genetic mapping. Microbial genetics emerged in the mid 1940s, and the role of DNA as the genetic material was firmly established. During this period great advances were made in understanding the mechanisms of gene transfer between bacteria, and a broad knowledge base was established from which later developments would emerge.

The discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 provided the stimulus for the development of genetics at the molecular level, and the next few years saw a period of intense activity and excitement as the main features of the gene and its expression were determined. This work culminated with the establishment of the complete genetic code in 1966. The stage was now set for the appearance of the new genetics.

From 1865 to now the history of genetics development is the development of human knowledge and understanding of genes. In other words, genetics is a science of the structure, function and movement of genes. Before going into the exact definition of gene, one can begin by understanding that a gene is a piece of DNA which has a function such as determining human eye color, pea seed shape or a disease.

Lecture 2. genes are mostly located on chromosomes

All living organisms are composed of cells. Many of the chemical reactions of an organism, its metabolism, take place inside of cells. The genetic information required for the maintenance of existing cells and the production of new cells is stored within the membrane-bound nucleus in eukaryotic cells or in the nucleoid region of prokaryotes. This genetic information passes from one generation to the next.  

The nucleus, which contains the genetic information (DNA), is the control center of the cell. DNA in the nucleus is packaged into chromosomes. DNA replication and RNA transcription of DNA occur in the nucleus. Transcription is the first step in the expression of genetic information and is the major metabolic activity of the nucleus. 

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genetics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10782/1.1
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