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Natural sciences

The earth and beyond

Fossils

Educator section

Memorandum

Assignment 7:

Ensure that a dictionary of definitions is available in class.

1. 100 years

2. About three quarters of South Africa consisted of a large marshy bowl. These unique conditions are ideal for fossilisation.

3. When something in nature dies, it is normally eaten and scattered by scavengers. These bones, that are often scattered widely, are then covered in mud and sand.

4. True. Fossils represent people, plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. We can derive a lot from them.

5. A fossil is any remains of a human being, animal or plant that remained intact in the rock formations of the earth.

6. Shells are mostly too hard to be eaten. They are part of the invertebrates that make up a large portion of the animal kingdom. A lot of fossilisation happened in water.

7. Teeth consist of bone covered by enamel. Bone is the hardest tissue in the body. Teeth are well protected against decay, because they are already mineralised.

8. A scientist manages a specific section of knowledge that consists of systematically arranged facts based on general principles.

A scientist is a person who has expert knowledge of one or more of the natural or physical sciences. (Paperback Oxford English Dictionary 2001)

9. Paleo is a prefix meaning older or ancient. (Paperback Oxford English Dictionary 2001)

Leaner section

Content

FOSSILS CAN PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH. WE FIND FOSSILS IN ROCK LAYERS. THEY ARE THE REMAINS OF PEOPLE AND PLANTS, AS WELL AS SKELETONS AND SHELLS OF ANIMALS THAT WERE ALIVE IN THE DISTANT PAST. THE ROCK LAYERS IN WHICH WE FIND FOSSILS ARE KNOWN AS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. FOSSILS ARE VERY IMPORTANT FOR OUR ATTEMPTS TO RECONSTRUCT THE PREHISTORIC ENVIRONMENT OF OUR ANCESTORS BECAUSE PLANTS AND ANIMALS PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT NATURE.

  • Anything that gives visual proof of past life can be called a fossil. Petrified bones and teeth provide the best fossils from prehistoric people. Bone is the hardest tissue in the body and can therefore be preserved much more easily than anything else. Footprints, tools, burnt bones from the prey that they hunted for food and remains of shells that were collected serve as fossilised proof of their way of living.

Activity: to explain how fossils were formed [lo 1.2, lo 2.3]

  • It is not easy to fossilise anything. Scavengers quickly consume any creature that dies in nature and the bones become scattered. As the years pass, these remains are covered with sand and mud. This is why we hardly ever discover complete fossilised skeletons. With the passing of the centuries more and more sand and mud are deposited over the bones. The sand and mud gradually become petrified and bones of prehistoric animals and shells are conserved and even become hard and rock-like.
  • Sometimes the rock crumbles or is eroded by the sea or a river, so that some of the fossils are revealed on the surface. Shells are the most common fossils, but bones from large reptiles are found quite frequently right across the world. Bones and shells are not the only things that are conserved below the ground. Even marks made by raindrops have already been discovered. The petrified faeces of some animals are among the strangest fossils that have ever been found. These are known as coprolites.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
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