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Natural sciences

The earth and beyond

Fossils

Educator section

Memorandum

Assignment 7:

Ensure that a dictionary of definitions is available in class.

1. 100 years

2. About three quarters of South Africa consisted of a large marshy bowl. These unique conditions are ideal for fossilisation.

3. When something in nature dies, it is normally eaten and scattered by scavengers. These bones, that are often scattered widely, are then covered in mud and sand.

4. True. Fossils represent people, plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. We can derive a lot from them.

5. A fossil is any remains of a human being, animal or plant that remained intact in the rock formations of the earth.

6. Shells are mostly too hard to be eaten. They are part of the invertebrates that make up a large portion of the animal kingdom. A lot of fossilisation happened in water.

7. Teeth consist of bone covered by enamel. Bone is the hardest tissue in the body. Teeth are well protected against decay, because they are already mineralised.

8. A scientist manages a specific section of knowledge that consists of systematically arranged facts based on general principles.

A scientist is a person who has expert knowledge of one or more of the natural or physical sciences. (Paperback Oxford English Dictionary 2001)

9. Paleo is a prefix meaning older or ancient. (Paperback Oxford English Dictionary 2001)

Leaner section

Content

FOSSILS CAN PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH. WE FIND FOSSILS IN ROCK LAYERS. THEY ARE THE REMAINS OF PEOPLE AND PLANTS, AS WELL AS SKELETONS AND SHELLS OF ANIMALS THAT WERE ALIVE IN THE DISTANT PAST. THE ROCK LAYERS IN WHICH WE FIND FOSSILS ARE KNOWN AS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. FOSSILS ARE VERY IMPORTANT FOR OUR ATTEMPTS TO RECONSTRUCT THE PREHISTORIC ENVIRONMENT OF OUR ANCESTORS BECAUSE PLANTS AND ANIMALS PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT NATURE.

  • Anything that gives visual proof of past life can be called a fossil. Petrified bones and teeth provide the best fossils from prehistoric people. Bone is the hardest tissue in the body and can therefore be preserved much more easily than anything else. Footprints, tools, burnt bones from the prey that they hunted for food and remains of shells that were collected serve as fossilised proof of their way of living.

Activity: to explain how fossils were formed [lo 1.2, lo 2.3]

  • It is not easy to fossilise anything. Scavengers quickly consume any creature that dies in nature and the bones become scattered. As the years pass, these remains are covered with sand and mud. This is why we hardly ever discover complete fossilised skeletons. With the passing of the centuries more and more sand and mud are deposited over the bones. The sand and mud gradually become petrified and bones of prehistoric animals and shells are conserved and even become hard and rock-like.
  • Sometimes the rock crumbles or is eroded by the sea or a river, so that some of the fossils are revealed on the surface. Shells are the most common fossils, but bones from large reptiles are found quite frequently right across the world. Bones and shells are not the only things that are conserved below the ground. Even marks made by raindrops have already been discovered. The petrified faeces of some animals are among the strangest fossils that have ever been found. These are known as coprolites.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
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