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In the investigation you will notice that the holes in the paper need to be in a straight line. This shows that light travels in a straight line. We cannot see around corners. This also proves that light does not bend around a corner, but travels straight.

Investigation : light travels in straight lines

On a sunny day, stand outside and look at something in the distance, for example a tree, a flower or a car. From what we have learnt, we can see the tree, flower or car because light from the object is entering our eye. Now take a sheet of paper and hold it about 20 cm in front of your face. Can you still see the tree, flower or car? Why not?

[link] shows that a sheet of paper in front of your eye prevents light rays from reaching your eye.

The sheet of paper prevents the light rays from reaching the eye, and the eye cannot see the object.


Objects cast shadows when light shines on them. This is more evidence that light travels in straight lines. The picture below shows how shadows are formed.

Ray diagrams

A ray diagram is a drawing that shows the path of light rays. Light rays are drawn using straight lines and arrow heads. The figure below shows some examples of ray diagrams.

Light rays

  1. Give evidence to support the statement: “Light travels in straight lines”. Draw a ray diagram to prove this.


When you smile into a mirror, you see your own face smiling back at you. This is caused by the reflection of light rays on the mirror. Reflection occurs when a light ray bounces off a surface.


In  Transverse Pulses and Transverse Waves we saw that when a pulse or wave strikes a surface it is reflected . This means that waves bounce off things. Sound waves bounce off walls, light waves bounce off mirrors, radar waves bounce off aeroplanes and it can explain how bats can fly at night and avoid things as thin as telephone wires. The phenomenon of reflection is a very important and useful one.

We will use the following terminology. The incoming light ray is called the incident ray . The light ray moving away from the surface is the reflected ray . The most important characteristic of these rays is their angles in relation to the reflecting surface. These angles are measured with respect to the normal of the surface. The normal is an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface. The angle of incidence, θ i is measured between the incident ray and the surface normal. The angle of reflection, θ r is measured between the reflected ray and the surface normal. This is shown in [link] .

When a ray of light is reflected, the reflected ray lies in the same plane as the incident ray and the normal. This plane is called the plane of incidence and is shown in [link] .

The angles of incidence and reflection are measured with respect to the surface normal.
The plane of incidence is the plane including the incident ray, reflected ray, and the surface normal.

Law of reflection

The Law of Reflection states that the angles of incidence and reflection are always equal and that the reflected ray always lies in the plane of incidence.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Maths test. OpenStax CNX. Feb 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11236/1.2
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