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This module is a laboratory assignment to implement an echo function.


In this laboratory you will use a program that gathers data from an A/D converter, processes the data, and outputs to a D/A converter. The signal processing portion will be added by you to perform an echo function. After this laboratory you should:

  • Understand how data is received from an A/D converter and sent to a D/A converter
  • Understand how signal processing is done in "real-time"
  • Be able to implement a simple signal processing algorithm using "block processing" techniques

Laboratory assignment

In the laboratory you will be making a delay function or an echo. To make an echo you will need to delay the data that is coming into the DSP. This is usually accomplished using a buffer that is used to store previous input values. Use a circular buffer to store the input data. The length of the buffer is determined by

N = Delay SampleRate size 12{N= ital "Delay" cdot ital "SampleRate"} {}

In order to implement the delay an array of sufficient size must be defined. When a function is called, the local variables will go onto the stack. The stack is usually small compared to other memory sections. Therefore, the number of local variables for a function is limited. Since the array for storing the previous inputs will be large, the array should be stored somewhere else in memory besides on the stack. If the Memory Model in the build options is set to Far Aggregate then the global variables and the local static variables will be put into the .far section. This section can be set to the large external memory. Therefore, the array that stores the delay values should be defined as either a global or static local variable . A static local variable is a variable that is not initialized each time a function is called. The static variable will retain the value it had the last time the function was called. To make a static variable just use the static keyword in front of the variable definition.

static int static_var, static_array[10];

You need to make sure the .far section is set to a large memory section. For our project, set it to the SDRAM memory. To change the location of the .far section in the project you should:

  • Open the project DSK6713_audio.pjt
  • Open the configuration file DSK6713_audio.tcf
  • Right click on System->MEM and open Properties
  • Click on the Compiler Sections tab
  • On the pull down menu next to the .far section select SDRAM


  • If your sample rate is 8000 Hz and you want a delay of 1/2 second, how long should your delay buffer be?
  • The main loop in the default I/O program simply inputs a block of data and then outputs a block of data. You need to modify the main loop so that it will take an input sample, store it in the circular buffer and output the sample that is delayed by 1/2 second. Your code should implement a circular buffer . Also, make sure you initialize the buffer with zeros so that you won't output whatever happens to be in the memory.
  • What is the transfer function, H(z), of the system in the following figure? What is the difference equation? What would happen if you set the feedback gain to a value greater than 1?
  • Write another program that will implement a fading echo shown in following figure. The output of the delay is fed back to the input of the delay and added to the input.


Part 1

  • In this part you will just get the template project working that simply outputs whatever was input.
  • Open the project DSK6713_audio.pjt .
  • Change the parameters in the DSK6713_audio.c file so that the sampling rate is 8000 Hz and the input is from the microphone.
  • Connect a microphone to the DSK board microphone input and the speakers to the line out.
  • Build, load and run the project.
  • Verify that as you speak into the microphone you hear yourself on the speakers.

Part 2

  • Modify the program DSK6713_audio.c so that one channel of output is delayed by 1/2 second. Make sure to define your stored samples array as a global or static array in external memory.
  • Build, load and run the project.
  • Demonstrate that you get a 1/2 second delay in the output.

Part 3

  • Modify the program DSK6713_audio.c to implement the fading echo.
  • Build, load and run the project.
  • Demonstrate that you get a 1/2 second delay in the output.
  • What would happen if you set the feedback gain to a value greater that 1?

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Dsp lab with ti c6x dsp and c6713 dsk. OpenStax CNX. Feb 18, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11264/1.6
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