<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 201 to 300

China and manchuria (chin to 316, then north-south division with wei)

We ended the last century with the new Chin Dynasty ruling a somewhat unified China but this era was dominated by great landowning families, each with hundreds of serfs and private soldiers. In A.D. 304 a sinicized Hsiung-un chieftain established a state called "Han" (later Chao) in Shansi and from there he sacked the Chin capital at Loyang seven years later. At this same time a great pestilence, preceded by locusts and famine, left only one or two people out of a hundred alive in the northwestern provinces of China. In 322 another epidemic, which may have been small-pox, hit with three out of each ten dying. Maximal political fragmentation coincided almost exactly with the arrival of this disease and the population, overall, was nearly halved. The political upheavals involved several short-lived dynasties of foreigners from the steppes, some Hsiung-nu, some proto-Mongolian Hsien-pei, some Turkic and Avar and even some Tibetan tribes. It was the Shansi Hsiung-nu who again overwhelmed the new Chin capital at Ch'ang-an. They were led by Liu Yuan who was six feet tall and had red strains in his long beard

Maenchen-Helfen (Ref. 127 ) gives this as additional evidence that the Huns, which presumably descended in part from the Hsiung-nu were a mixed group, probably including some "Europoid" elements
. Subsequently this area of northern Honan, in central China, was ruled by the Chieh, one of the 19 tribes of the Hsiung-nu. These Chieh had high noses and full beards and were definitely non-Mongolian, perhaps Tocharian, in origin. They were finally massacred, all 200,000 of them, in A.D. 349 by Jan Min who then became lord of the region. (Ref. 101 , 140 , 8 , 127 )

Refugees from the north set up a new Eastern Chin Dynasty at Nanking and in 347 they reconquered Szechwan but in the latter half of the century a Tibetan general, FuChien, temporarily consolidated the north. His plan to add the south was wrecked at a famous battle of the Fei River in 383 when he was defeated by the Eastern Chin. Finally in 386 a powerful Turkic people, the Toba (Northern Wei) who became avid Buddhists, succeeded in re-unifying northern China once again. Their kingdom actually included a large part of Siberia and Manchuria, carrying the absorbed Chinese civilization to the Arctic. This has been compared to Charlemagne's Empire in that in both the barbarians became civilized - "Chinicized" or "Romanized" respectively. The Buddhist art of north China was profoundly influenced by Central Asia for the next 200 years, although in the south, as the Chinese achieved some mastery of the concepts and terms of Indian Buddhism, they began to develop schools of their own (Ref. 8 , 19 , 101 )


Southern Japan was still in the Great Tombs or Kofun Period, in which the nobles used pottery coffins, high-fired stoneware, iron and bronze implements and weapons. (Ref. 19 ) The victories of the half-legendary Prince Yamatodake over the Kumaso and the Ainu seem to reflect a period of rapid expansion in the early decades of this century. There were many Japanese campaigns now onto the Korean peninsula by the armies of the Empress Jingo, with the establishment of a Japanese protectorate over a group of miniature states known as Kara or Imna, in southern Korea.

The 12th emperor, Keiko, who reigned probably from A.D. 280 to 316 returned to Kyushu and after getting rid of the queens of the ancient, savage tribe he negotiated a permanent merger of Yamato and Kyushu.

As Yamato grew in geographical size, chiefly by driving the Ainu farther and farther north, the population increased and the emperors, like the Egyptian pharaohs, began to construct vast mausolea. Each successive ruler wanted a bigger tumulus and a larger company of victim vassals to be buried with him and convey him to the spirit world. Forced retainer sacrifice was practiced routinely in this and the next century. (Ref. 12 )


By A.D. 313 the last remnants of Chinese colonies were extinguished by the native states of Korea, although Chinese culture remained dispersed throughout the peninsula.

Three kingdoms emerged: Koguryo in the north; Paekche in the southwest; and Silla in the southeast. All had high-fired pottery of great excellence. The Japanese foothold, mentioned in the second paragraph above, was established between the two latter kingdoms. (Ref. 19 )

Southeast asia

Tibeto-Burmese tribesmen migrated from the north into present day Burma, forming the Pyu Kingdom. Chenla was the country of Khmer people occupying what is now Thailand and Laos. Funan, under its Khmer rulers, continued as a prosperous agricultural and trading country on the Cambodian plateau. Active civilizations existed in the Indonesian area with sea-faring men trading with Africa and Europe. Cinnamon from Malaya and Indonesia was sent all the way to Rome. (Ref. 176 , 211 )

Forward to The Far East: A.D. 401 to 500

    Choose different region

  • Intro to Era
  • Africa
  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?