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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 101 to 200

China and manchuria (han to 220, three kingdoms to 280, then chin)

At the beginning of the century the capital was at Lo-yang and northeastern China grew in importance. The Han Empire now reached as far south as Haiphong, but "The force of the imperial unity played itself out in 220, when the last of the Han emperors officially abdicated at the bidding of a general who had already kept him in custody for several years." (1) There followed a period of disordered life and a stalemated civilization, during which time there were three kingdoms: Wei, in the north, directly following the Han Dynasty, under Ts'ao P'ei; Wu, in the southeast, based at Nanking under Sun Ch'u~an; and Shu, controlled by Liu Pei and based at Chengtu in the southwest. Liu Pei and his family, originally lieutenants of General Ts'ao Ts'oa, protector of the last of the Hans, then became the greatest enemy of the Wei, giving rise to legends, fiction and drama in China for centuries to come. Even so, Shu Han was absorbed by Wei in A.D. 263 and Wu gave way in 280, ending the Three Kingdoms era. In the meantime, the Ssu-ma family generals had taken over Wei and changed the name to Chin, and for a generation after 280 China again had a fragile unity. The population at that time was only 16,163,0009 a drop from 55,000,000 in the middle of the 2nd century. A severe pestilence was a major factor in this population decline, as in Europe at the same time, but at least part of it was due to wide-spread cannibalism. China had entered her four centuries of "dark ages". The southern Hsiung-nu lived on the frontier as a hostile minority and the long delayed clash was about to occur. (Ref. 8 , 139 , 68 , 101 )

Mo Ching wrote the Pulse Classic, an intensive method of diagnosis from study of the pulse, a procedure still used in China and which had originally been described in the 6th or 5th century B.C. Chang Chung-ching wrote a classic treatise on "Typhoid and other Fevers" and it was perhaps in this century that Ko Hung described beriberi, hepatitis, and plague and gave an early report on small-pox with an accurate description of the pustules. Chinese medicine continued to progress from this time until the 10th century, when it became static. Although sugar cane was known near Canton, it was not commuted to sugar, proper, and honey remained the universal sweetener. (Ref. 136 , 125 , 213 )


Sometime between A.D. 200 and 250 the 10th emperor, Sujin, had the royal bronze mirror and the sword enshrined outside the palace for all to see and admire. The mirror, called "the mirror of knowledge" was housed at a shrine called "Ise", which even today is a prime holy place of Japan. The Yamato Culture of Korean origin was introduced with iron implements and megalithic burials. Handicrafts were soon organized into guilds. Beneath this artisan class was a slave class, recruited from prisons and battle- fields. Social organization was partly feudal, partly tribal and each clan had a sovereign head. Government was primitively low and weak, although it was a period of geographical expansion and victory over the Ainu. (Ref. 12 , 19 )


This was a period of some turmoil, with early century invasions by Kungsun Manchurians and late century conquests by the Chinese of the Wei Dynasty. About A.D. 250 northern invaders established the state of Paikche, in the southwest.

Southeast asia

Burma was under Indian influence and by this era Hindu peoples had established commercial settlements on the coast and river mouths. These settlements developed into small kingdoms in contact with Tibeto-Burmese tribes. Champa, Funan, Viet and Khmer kingdoms continued rivalries. The Chinese controlled Haiphong and it is probable that Chinese and Indian traders met at Go Oc Eo in southern Cambodia, from whence the Indians carried the Chinese goods on across the Malay Peninsula and on to India. From A.D. 200 on the island kingdoms of Indonesia derived their civilization from India, through contacts with Hindu traders and Buddhist monks. (Ref. 8 , 176 )

REFERENCE Quotation taken from Mc Neill (Ref. 139 ), page 324.

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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