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There was still intermittent warfare and civil uprisings. The third Ming emperor, Ch'eng-tsu, came to power by overthrowing his nephew, after three years of civil war, but he rebuilt Peking and reconstructed the silted-up Grand Canal, thus allowing grain and textiles to come to the city from the rich southeast. He bullied Japan into nominal vassalage for the first time. In the middle of the century the emperor Ying-tsung (era name - Tien-shun) was taken captive and his court slaughtered by a Mongol raider, Esen. Rural problems also led to a number of rebellions, chiefly in the central and southeastern China, leading to a million deaths. (Ref. 101 , 8 )


Although organization and administration was sometimes neglected and chaotic, many of the dictators of the Ashikaga Shogunate were patrons of the arts and collected pieces that are prizes of collectors today. Local rulers of wide territories were called daimyos , meaning "feudal lords" and their subordinate soldiery were samurai , a word originally simply meaning "attendant". In the civil wars which raged throughout Japan, sometimes an entire clan family would be killed off and then their remaining fighting retainers would become masterless samurai or- ronin (wave-men). Some of these became pirates, terrorizing the coast of China and even the Philippines. (Ref. 12 ) In 1428, transport workers struck in protest against high prices and they, backed by farmers, rioted in the streets and wrecked warehouses, temples and houses. (Ref. 222 )

Towns developed, eventually becoming the modern cities of Osaka, Kobe and Fukuoka. Kyoto was the undisputed political and cultural capital. This was still a thoroughly Buddhist age in Japan, but intellectual life began to free itself from the bonds of religion. The Ashikaga power began to decline early in the century and the Onin War (1467-77) began a hundred years of strife between the feudal lords. (Ref. 119 , 12 )


The new Yi Dynasty was dominated by the Chinese and there was a suppression of Buddhism. Japanese pirate raids subsided somewhat and Korea had a period of great prosperity and cultural development. King Sejong (1419-1451) was a great patron of learning. It was at this time that the native phonetic script called "Onmum" was introduced and it is possible that the movable metal printing characters mentioned above were actually developed in Korea. (Ref. 233 , 260 )

Southeast asia

The Chinese Ming occupied Annam (Vietnam), through their navy, from 1407 to 1427, but then met resistance and finally allowed the region its independence in 1428. A Lao tribal monarch established the Laotian Kingdom of Lan Xang in mid-century. This included present day Laos and much of northern and eastern Thailand. The Siamese (Thai), under King Trailok, had centralized bureaucracy and a codified system of law. They ravaged Angkor in 1431 and took over a great part of the southern Khmer Empire, leaving them only what is now the general area of Cambodia and which was then called "Kambuja". After the sacking of Angkor the Siamese went home with as much loot as they could carry and when they returned for more a year later the city, where once there had been a million people, was deserted. No one knows where the people went, but through neglect the huge reservoirs, canals, roads and bridges all gave way to the jungle. (Ref. 8 , 101 , 176 ) Braudel (Ref. 260 ) says that the Siamese attacks upset the daily life and agriculture so that the rice field water cleared, allowing the malaria carrying mosquitoes to thrive and that the disease apparently decimated the population.

Northern Burma was under the Shan power while southern Burma was under the Mon (Pegu). The new Vietnamese kingdom of Dai-Viet gradually absorbed Champa territory, annexing its capital, Vijaya, in 1471. (Ref. 8 )

Since the Moluccas Islands and Malay, along with Ceylon, were the source of almost all spices, Malacca became an international port, shipping to China and the Malabar coast of India from where Arabs, Indians and Persians took over for further distribution. Built in a dismal swamp almost inaccessible by land, Malacca had been of no importance except as a pirate storage headquarters until in this and the preceding century it became a port for peaceable shipping. (Ref. 279 ) The men of Islam overthrew the old Majapahit Empire and their religion, which had been introduced into the Malayan archipelago from India in the 10th century, now finally became dominant as the Hindus were driven to Bali and a few other islands. (Ref. 8 , 68 )

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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