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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 6

Klimaat en plantegroeistreke van die wêreld

Module 8

Klimaat en plantegroeistreke van die wêreld

Die klimaat en plantegroeistreke van die wêreld

Jy weet reeds dat die weerstoestande oor ‘n lang tydperk (20 – 35 jaar) ‘n spesifieke plek se klimaat vorm. Omdat weer nie absoluut voorspelbaar is nie, kan ons nie definitief sê dat dit Nuwejaarsdag in Kaapstad sal reën nie, maar ons weet wel dat Januarie normaalweg ‘n droër maand as Junie sal wees. Klimaatstoestande het oor ‘n lang tydperk getoon dat Kaapstad sy meeste reën in die winter kry.

Wanneer ons die eienskappe van plekke se klimaat bestudeer, is dit dus duidelik dat groot gebiede dieselfde gemiddelde toestande ondervind en dus ‘n tipe klimaatstreek vorm. Deur die eeue het die mens hom dikwels laat beïnvloed deur die klimaat as hy moes besluit op ‘n plek van vestiging. Groot dele van die wêreld is òf te koud òf te droog of warm vir mense om in te bly. Dan is daar ook die beskikbaarheid van hulpbronne wat die mens se keuse van ‘n blyplek beïnvloed. Daarom dat die ongeveer ses miljard mense op die aarde maar slegs 15% (3/20) van die aarde se oppervlak bewoon.

1. Faktore wat klimaat beïnvloed

  • Soos julle reeds in graad 5 geleer het, is daar baie faktore wat die klimaat van ‘n streek beïnvloed. Ons gaan vervolgens kyk na faktore wat ‘n invloed op die wêreldklimaat het.

Lengteligging van ‘n plek

Die warmste klimaat is die plekke naaste aan die ewenaar. Hoe verder jy van die ewenaar af beweeg, hoe kouer word dit. Om 12:00 skyn die son feitlik reg van bo by die ewenaar. Die sonstrale is meer gekonsentreerd en daarom styg die temperature hoër. Verder noord en suid val die sonstrale teen ‘n hoek en word dit deur die aarde se ronding oor ‘n groter area versprei. Daarom is die strale minder gekonsentreerd en dit is gevolglik koeler.

Ewenaar : sonstrale feitlik loodreg

Pole : son laer op horison

By die ewenaar veroorsaak die hoë temperature hoë verdamping wat dan weer tot hoër neerslag lei.

Hoogte bo seevlak

Die aarde absorbeer die sonstrale, skakel daarvan om in hitte en straal dit weer uit. Hoe nader jy dus aan die bron van radiasie (uitstraling) is, hoe warmer is dit, en hoe verder jy van die bron af wegbeweeg (bo-op ‘n hoë berg), hoe kouer is dit. Jy kan die beginsel van uitstraling toets deur jou hand eers naby die vuur (verwarmer) te hou en dit dan al verder weg te beweeg. Dit word al kouer hoe verder jy van die hittebron af beweeg.

Dit is meestal koud op hoë berge. Die hoogste bergspitse in die wêreld is altyd met sneeu bedek.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om inligting uit ‘n atlas te bekom

[lu 1.2, 1.3]

Gebruik jou atlas en vind uit...

  • die naam en hoogte van die hoogste bergpiek in Suid-Afrika;
  • wat die lengte- en breedteligging van Kilimandjaro is.

Invloed van seestrome / oseane

Die temperatuur van die nabygeleë oseane beïnvloed die landtemperatuur. Winde waai die warm of koue lug wat oor die warm of koue oseaan is na die land toe en verhoog of verlaag so die temperatuur van die land. So is daar ook winde wat van die poolstreke noord- of suidwaarts vloei en koue lug oor die land inwaai.

Questions & Answers

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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10999/1.1
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