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Five kingdom system

This is the most common way of grouping living things based on simple distinctive characteristics. Classification systems are always changing as newinformation is made available. Modern technologies such as electron microscopy make it possible to observe microscopic organisms in greater detail. Thecurrent system was developed by Robert H. Whittaker in 1969 and was built on the work of previous biologists such as Carolus Linnaeus. The highest groupingis called a kingdom .

Five kingdoms: http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/modern-classification /five-kingdom-classification.php

Bug scope: Images of microscopic organisms http://bugscope.beckman.uiuc.edu/

Neok12: Animals and wildlife videos http://www.neok12.com/Animals-Wildlife.htm

Encyclopedia of life: Images and explanations of terms http://eol.org/index

Living things can be classified into five major kingdoms:

Kingdom Monera (Bacteria)

Kingdom Protista

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Animalia

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uJ8QeFRvJA&feature=related A video showing a brief summary of the five kingdoms

Distinctive features of the five kingdoms

Kingdom monera

  • Prokaryotic, unicellular.
  • No nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles such as

chloroplasts, Golgi complex, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.

  • Have a cell wall made without cellulose.
  • Reproduction is mainly asexual by binary fission.
  • Important examples: Archaea, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), bacteria

Interesting fact: Bacteria are found everywhere and are the most numerous organisms on Earth. In a single gram of soil, there are about 40 millionbacterial cells. The human body also contains 10 times as many bacterial cells as human cells!!

Kingdom protista

  • Eukaryotic, can be unicellular or simple multicellular.
  • Reproduction can be asexual or sexual.
  • Important examples: Plasmodium (causes malaria), amoeba, euglena

Kingdom fungi

  • Eukaryotic, multicellular (some unicellular like yeasts).
  • Have a cell wall made of chitin.
  • Non-motile with long extensions called hyphae.
  • Nutrition is heterotrophic: important as decomposers (saprophytes), can be parasitic.
  • Store food as glycogen
  • Reproduction is by spore formation (both asexual and sexual).
  • Important examples: Mushrooms, Penicillium (a fungus which was used to make penicillin), bread mould

http://blog.ted.com/2008/05/06/paul_stamets/ A TED video on the many uses of Fungi

Kingdom plantae

  • Eukaryotic, multicellular.
  • Distinct cell wall made of cellulose.
  • Have plastids and photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll.
  • Non-motile.
  • Nutrition is autotrophic (make their own food by photosynthesis).
  • Sexual reproduction.
  • Important examples: Green algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants.

Kingdom animalia

  • Eukaryotic and multicellular but have no cell wall or photosynthetic pigments
  • Mostly motile
  • Heterotrophic nutrition.
  • Sexual or vegetative (asexual) reproduction
  • Important examples: Porifera (sponges), Mammalia, Insects

Additional resource:

Projects and assignments:

1. Research one beneficial and one harmful application of one member from each kingdom, with examples from their use in South Africa. Students can be groupedinto smaller groups and each one is given one kingdom to research. (Use www.arkive.org as a research tool for your favourite animal or plant or http://bugscope.becnkman.uiuc.edu/ for nice pictures of insects). Results can be presented in the form of a poster.

2. Go to your nearest supermarket or garden and find one representative organism for each kingdom. Present this information by drawing diagrams.

Questions & Answers

general equation for photosynthesis
Ojasope Reply
6CO2 + 6H2O + solar energy= C6H1206+ 6O2
Anastasiya
meaning of amino Acids
AJAYI Reply
a diagram of an adult mosquito
mubarak Reply
what are white blood cells
Mlungisi Reply
white blood cell is part of the immune system. that help fight the infection.
MG
what about tissue celss
Mlungisi
Cells with a similar function, form a tissue. For example the nervous tissue is composed by cells:neurons and glia cells. Muscle tissue, is composed by different cells.
Anastasiya
I need further explanation coz celewi anything guys,,,
Calvin Reply
hey guys
Isala
on what?
Anastasiya
hie
Lish
is air homogenous or hetrogenous
damiane Reply
homogenous
Kevin
why saying homogenous?
Isala
explain if oxygen is necessary for photosynthesis
Allice Reply
explain if oxygen is necessary for photosynthesis
Allice Reply
Yes, the plant does need oxygen. The plant uses oxygen, water, light, and produced food. The plant use process called photosynthesis.
MG
By using the energy of sunlight, plants convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen by photosynthesis. This happens during the day and sunlight is needed.
NOBLE
no. it s a product of the process
Anastasiya
yet still is it needed?
NOBLE
no. The reaction is: 6CO2+6H20+ solar energy =C6H12O6(glucose)+602. The plant requires Carbon dioxyde, light, and water Only, and produces glucose and oxygen( which is a waste).
Anastasiya
what was the question
NOBLE Reply
joining
Godfrey
the specific one
NOBLE
the study of non and living organism is called.
Godfrey
Is call biology
Alohan
yeah
NOBLE
yes
Usher
what Is ecology
Musonda Reply
what is a cell
Emmanuel Reply
A cell is a basic structure and functional unit of life
Ndongya
what is biolgy
Hawwi Reply
is the study of living and non living organisms
Ahmed
may u draw the female organ
MARTIN Reply
i dont understand
Asal
:/
Asal
me too
DAVID
anabolism and catabolism
Sani Reply
Anabolism refers to the process in methabolism in which complex molecules are formed "built" and requires energy to happen. Catabolism is the opposite process: complex molecules are deconstructed releasing energy, such as during glicolysis.
Anastasiya
Explain briefly independent assortment gene .
Otu Reply
hi
Amargo
hi I'm Anatalia
Joy
what do you mean by pituitary gland
Digambar
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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