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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 7

Kaartwerk

Module 12

Rigting en kontoerlyne

1. Rigting

Daar is vier hoofrigtings, maar tussen dié vier hoofrigtings is daar sekondêre en tersiêre rigtings. Maak seker dat jy daarmee vertroud is en bestudeer die meegaande figuur.

Hoofrigtings

Sekondêre rigtings

Tersiêre rigtings

2 . Kontoerlyne

Wat is ‘n kontoerlyn?

  • Dit is lyne wat plekke, wat op dieselfde hoogte bo seevlak geleë is, met mekaar verbind. Deur na die patrone van kontoerlyne te kyk, kan jy baie inligting oor ‘n gebied se eienskappe bekom.

Kenmerke van kontoerlyne

  • Elke kontoerlyn sluit by homself aan en vorm dus ‘n geslote lyn.
  • Kontoere kruis of sny mekaar nooit nie of verdeel ook nie in twee nie.
  • Die enigste geval waar kontoere mekaar raak, is wanneer hulle ‘n loodregte vorm soos ‘n krans of ‘n waterval voorstel.
  • Die verskil in hoogte (of toename tussen twee opeenvolgende hoogtelyne) is konstant. Hierdie verskil in meter staan bekend as die vertikale tussenruimte.
  • Die kontoer se hoogte in meter word by ‘n onderbreking in die lyn (of net bokant die lyn) geskryf.
  • Elke vyfde kontoerlyn is duideliker (of dikker) geteken. Waar die vertikale tussenruimte 20 meter is, word die duideliker lyne as 300 meter en 400 meter aangedui; die ander tussen-in word ligter aangedui.
  • Wanneer daar ‘n baie steil helling is, is die kontoere baie naby aan mekaar geteken. As dit ‘n helling is wat geleidelik styg, is die kontoere deurgaans ver uitmekaar.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om die simbole op ‘n topografiese kaart te verstaan

[lu 1.4]

  • Bestudeer hierdie gedeelte van Ceres se 1:50 000 kaart.
Aktiwiteit 1.6 Om die simbole op ‘n topografiese kaart te verstaan
LU 1.4

1. Beantwoord nou die volgende vrae:

a) Hoeveel stasies en sylyne word aangedui?

b) Word hierdie dorp deur ‘n enkel- of dubbelspoor bedien?

c) Noem die naam van die rivier wat deur die dorp loop.

d) Noem die naam van die rivier wat in die Ceresdam vloei.

e) Hoeveel afsonderlike woongebiede word aangetoon?

f) Hoe hoog is die hoogste piek in die Witsenberg?

g) Bepaal die afstand tussen die polisiestasie en die sylyn (stasietjie) Skoonvlei.

h) Verduidelik hoekom die kontoere in die omgewing van die Aartappelrivier (noord van die dorp) ver van mekaar is, terwyl dit suidwes van Ceres weer baie naby aan mekaar geleë is.

Hierdie topografiese kaarte word nie in atlasse gevind nie. Jy kan dit bestel vanaf die Staatsdrukker in Pretoria, waar dit deur kartograwe geteken word vanaf vertikale lugfoto’s en ortofotokaarte.

Assessering

Leeruitkomstes(LUs)
LU 1
AARDRYKSKUNDIGE ONDERSOEKDie leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.
Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
1.1 ‘n verskeidenheid aardrykskundige en omgewingsbronne relevant vir ‘n ondersoek identifiseer [vind bronne];
1.2 inligting relevant vir die ondersoek uit eenvoudige grafieke, kaarte en statistiese bronne organiseer en interpreteer [werk met bronne];
1.3 afstande op aardbolle, atlasse en kaarte meet deur lynskale te gebruik [werk met bronne];
1.4 plaaslike kaarte en/of ortofotokaarte gebruik om ligging te bepaal en die vraagstuk en die konteks daarvan te ondersoek (vergelyk met veldwaarnemings) [werk met bronne];

Memorandum

Aktiwiteit 1:

1.

a) 4

b) Enkelspoor

c) Dwarsrivier

d) Koekedourivier

e) Hoofdorp, tweede direk oos van hoofdorp, derde noordoos van hoofdorp Nduli.

f) Slab Peak 1 392 m

g) 6,2 cm × 50 000 = 310 000 cm ÷ 10 000 = 3,1 km

h) Aartappelrivieromgewing is geleë in die breë plat riviervallei, waar kontoere ver van mekaar geleë is om ‘n plat helling voor te stel. Die suidweste is ‘n hoër, bergagtige area wat steil berghellings het. Die kontoere is dus naby aan mekaar geleë.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11020/1.1
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