# Statistical terminology  (Page 3/4)

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1. $E\left(a\right)=a,$
2. $E\left(a{x}^{2}+bx+c\right)=aE\left({x}^{2}\right)+b\mu +c.$
3. $E\left(ax+b\right)=a\mu +b,$

These rules work both for discrete and continuous random variables.

## The joint pdf for two random variables.

Any function, $f\left(x,y\right),$ that has the characteristics

1. $f\left(x,y\right)\ge 0$ for all x and y and
2. $\underset{y}{\int }\underset{x}{\int }f\left(x,y\right)dxdy=1$

is a joint pdf. This definition can be extended easily to include more than two random variables.

## Covariance between two random variables.

If x and y are random variables, then the covariance between the two variables, $Cov\left(x,y\right)$ or ${\sigma }_{xy},$ is defined to be $Cov\left(x,y\right)=E\left[\left(x-{\mu }_{x}\right)\left(y-{\mu }_{y}\right)\right].$ Expansion gives the alternative definition that ${\sigma }_{xy}=E\left(xy\right)-{\mu }_{x}{\mu }_{y}.$

## Stochastic independence.

The random variables x and y are stochastically independent if and only if ${\sigma }_{xy}=0.$ An equivalent definition of independence is that x and y are stochastically independent if and only if $f\left(x,y\right)=f\left(x\right)f\left(y\right),$ or, in words, if the joint pdf of the two random variables is equal to the product of the pdf of each random variable. From the definition of covariance it is easy to see that if two random variables are stochastically independent then $E\left(xy\right)={\mu }_{x}{\mu }_{y}.$

## Correlation coefficient.

The correlation coefficient, $\rho ,$ is defined to be ${\rho }_{xy}=\frac{{\sigma }_{xy}}{{\sigma }_{x}{\sigma }_{y}}.$ The correlation coefficient is a unitless number that varies between -1 and +1. Clearly, two random variables are stochastically independent if and only if ${\rho }_{xy}=0.$

## Binomial distribution.

The discrete random variable x has a binomial distribution if where $\left(\begin{array}{l}n\\ x\end{array}\right)=\frac{n!}{x!\left(n-x\right)}.$ For the binomial distribution, $\mu =np$ and ${\sigma }^{2}=np\left(1-p\right).$

## Uniform distribution.

The discrete random variable x has a uniform distribution if The mean and variance of the uniform distribution are $\mu =\frac{a+b}{2}$ and ${\sigma }^{2}=\frac{{\left(b-a\right)}^{2}}{12}.$

## Poisson distribution.

The discrete random variable x has a Poisson distribution if For the Poisson distribution $\mu ={\sigma }^{2}=m.$ The Poisson distribution is used quite often in queuing theory to, among other things, describe the arrival of customers at a cashier's station.

## Expotential distribution.

The continuous random variable x has an exponential distribution if The cumulative exponential distribution is given by $F\left(x\right)=1-{e}^{-\lambda x},$ for $x\ge 0.$ The exponential distribution describes the times between events that occur continuously and independently at a constant rate (as in a Poisson process). The mean and variance of an exponential distribution are $\mu ={\lambda }^{-1}$ and ${\sigma }^{2}={\lambda }^{-2}.$

## Cauchy distribution.

A random variable x , where $-\infty has a Cauchy (or Cauchy-Lorentz) distribution if its pdf is $f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{\pi }\left[\frac{\gamma }{{\left(x-{x}_{0}\right)}^{2}+{\gamma }^{2}}\right].$ The parameter ${x}_{0}$ locates the peak of the pdf while γ specifies the half-width of the pdf at the half maximum. Figure 3 shows the pdf and cumulative function for two values of these two parameters.

## Normal distribution.

The continuous random variable x has a normal distribution with a mean of $\mu$ and a variance of ${\sigma }^{2}$ if its pdf is $f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{\sigma \sqrt{2\pi }}{e}^{-\frac{{\left(x-\mu \right)}^{2}}{2{\sigma }^{2}}}$ for $-\infty \le x\le \infty .$ The distribution is symmetric around the mean.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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