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In Manchuria, the proto-Mongolian people, the Khitan, had begun to raid the Chinese border as early as 695 and they continued throughout this 8th century. A little to their east were the P'o-Hai, a powerful kingdom set on the Chinese model but established by the remnants of the Korean Koguryo nobles. They remained independent from 710 on for some two centuries. (Ref. 8 )


We have previously indicated that for centuries it had been the custom for the Japanese royal family to change its capital each time a ruling emperor died. The so-called Nara period started with the capital at that city in 710, but this metropolis was too large to be torn down and moved each generation and that practice was stopped, at least until the final move to Kyoto in A.D. 794. Both Nara and Kyoto had been constructed using Baghdad as a model. (Ref. 8 ) After Emperor Kammu transferred his capital to Kyoto, Japanese art, previously under Chinese influences, developed its own mature style and taste. (Ref. 19 ) After Kammu's death the emperor's role deteriorated somewhat. Throughout this period, under Fujiwara ministers, court life had become a great pageant of ceremonies and costumes, and gradually the emperor's person, itself, became so taboo and awe-inspiring, as a rouged and gilded doll, that he began to be veiled from the world and the Fujiwaras took all responsibility for decisions, good or bad, shielding the throne. gradually came to believe in an emperor who was at the same time "a mortal god, a zero infinity, an impotent omnipotence"

The quotation is from Bergamini, (Ref. 12 )
. New civil and penal codes and the Yoro Laws, which were revisions of the Taiho Reforms, came into effect about 757 and gradually became more effective.

In 752 the Great Buddha at Nara, a 53 foot bronze figure, was dedicated as the cherished project of the Shomas. At the end of the century, in 790, Japan had a sustained epidemic with women under 30 years and males of all ages afflicted. (Ref. 140 )


Most of Korea was now united under the Silla Dynasty. Buddhism and art flourished, particularly at the capital on the site of modern Kyongju.

Southeast asia

The T'ai, or Shan, peoples had been infiltrating down into the southeast Asian peninsula for several centuries and now they formed a kingdom in Yunnan province of China.

The Dvaravati kingdom of Khmer people was Buddhist, rather than Brahman in religion, and in this century migrants were sent to the upper Menam Valley where they established the independent Kingdom of Haripunjaya, with a capital near the present Chiengmai. All of this occurred in what is now Thailand. Burma was under Indian influence and had Hindu commercial settlements on the Tenasserim coast and at the principal river mouths. In Cambodia the war-like course of the Chenlas was brought to an end when a king from Java entered and beheaded the Chenla ruler. Although the Javanese soon withdrew, that kingdom declined. On the Atlantic coast was Champa, under strong Indian influence. (Ref. 119 , 37 , 8 )

Throughout the first millennium after Christ, but particularly from the 7th to the 16th century, Indian culture and religious influence spread throughout Indonesia and in particular it created a distinctive civilization in Java. This society, controlled by the Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, was second only to the Khmers in southeast Asia. (Ref. 18 , 19 ) In this and the next century, Arab traders brought the Moslem religion to the Philippines and then, in turn, came the Indians. (Ref. 153 )

Forward to The Far East: A.D. 801 to 900

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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