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Italy (see maps on pages 704 and 711)

Italy remained as a group of states, including the Venetian Republic, Florence, the Papal States, Genoa and Corsica, Sicily under Spanish Aragon control, the Kingdom of Naples

After 1435 Naples was also ruled by the Aragon king until November, 1500 when, in a secret treaty of Granada, Louis XII and Ferdinand divided this kingdom between them. (Ref. 150 )
, and finally the German Empire which was dominant in the very north. Of all these, Venice was probably the most active, annexing much of the north Italian plain, giving her not only agricultural land of her own, but a direct route to Germany and guaranteeing her grain supply. (Ref. 292 ) Spices coming through Venice were in ever greater demand because they could disguise rancidity in food, reduce saltiness and give some character to otherwise insipid, dried edibles. At one time pepper was as negotiable as silver for currency in Europe. Venice imported 2,500 tons of pepper and ginger and almost as much again of other spices. The Venetian control of this trade actually was a great stimulus to the Portuguese to open up a sea route to India and was a factor in Spain's discovery of America. (Ref. 137 , 211 ) This city was also the incoming port for cotton in the form of yarn or bales, receiving loads twice a year from Syria in 1,000 ton ships
Genoese carracks at this same period were already up to 1,500 tons. (Ref. 279 )
. Venice was one of the first city-states to have a completely mercenary land army, although they had long used the same practice at sea. (Ref. 260 , 279 )

In contrast, it was in Florence that the Golden Age of the Renaissance started, in the last half of the century. Although plague continued to cause extensive loss of life in Italy as a whole, with a continued fall of the population of most Italian cities and with a decline in industrial and agricultural production and woolen cloth, still Florence seemed to prosper. The Florentine wool trade was a combination of activities in both town and country. In fact Gino Barbieri recently commented

As quoted by Braudel (Ref. 292 ), page 312
: "The Italian renaissance is really all about wool'" Controlled by the Medici family, Florence bought Pisa, gaining direct access to the sea and it then invited learned Greeks to the community (1439). This initiated a period of great art and secondarily a considerable looseness in living and morals. The house of a merchant in Tuscany about 1400 might have had 12 to 14 rooms with a tile roof and glass windows, possibly a fireplace and wall hangings of French serge or linen or carpet. Floor carpeting, however, was rare. The dining room would have a long table with only one communal drinking glass and no forks (except for serving) and few spoons. Guests would bring their own knives. Benches were far more common than chairs. As everything was made of wood, fires were common and catastrophic, as in all of Europe.

As a result of the transfer of the church from a religious organization to, for all intents and purposes, a secular political power, the Italian middle and upper classes became the most skeptical of all European peoples. Although they paid lip service to the Catholic faith, their ideas and writings became more humanistic. (Ref. 50 , 213 ) The papal schisms of this century undoubtedly had something to do with this shift of loyalties Water was beginning to be a troublesome factor in a great city such as Rome and one of the few accomplishments of Pope Martin V after the first papal schism was to restore one of the demolished great Roman aqueducts. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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