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Italy (see maps on pages 704 and 711)

Italy remained as a group of states, including the Venetian Republic, Florence, the Papal States, Genoa and Corsica, Sicily under Spanish Aragon control, the Kingdom of Naples

After 1435 Naples was also ruled by the Aragon king until November, 1500 when, in a secret treaty of Granada, Louis XII and Ferdinand divided this kingdom between them. (Ref. 150 )
, and finally the German Empire which was dominant in the very north. Of all these, Venice was probably the most active, annexing much of the north Italian plain, giving her not only agricultural land of her own, but a direct route to Germany and guaranteeing her grain supply. (Ref. 292 ) Spices coming through Venice were in ever greater demand because they could disguise rancidity in food, reduce saltiness and give some character to otherwise insipid, dried edibles. At one time pepper was as negotiable as silver for currency in Europe. Venice imported 2,500 tons of pepper and ginger and almost as much again of other spices. The Venetian control of this trade actually was a great stimulus to the Portuguese to open up a sea route to India and was a factor in Spain's discovery of America. (Ref. 137 , 211 ) This city was also the incoming port for cotton in the form of yarn or bales, receiving loads twice a year from Syria in 1,000 ton ships
Genoese carracks at this same period were already up to 1,500 tons. (Ref. 279 )
. Venice was one of the first city-states to have a completely mercenary land army, although they had long used the same practice at sea. (Ref. 260 , 279 )

In contrast, it was in Florence that the Golden Age of the Renaissance started, in the last half of the century. Although plague continued to cause extensive loss of life in Italy as a whole, with a continued fall of the population of most Italian cities and with a decline in industrial and agricultural production and woolen cloth, still Florence seemed to prosper. The Florentine wool trade was a combination of activities in both town and country. In fact Gino Barbieri recently commented

As quoted by Braudel (Ref. 292 ), page 312
: "The Italian renaissance is really all about wool'" Controlled by the Medici family, Florence bought Pisa, gaining direct access to the sea and it then invited learned Greeks to the community (1439). This initiated a period of great art and secondarily a considerable looseness in living and morals. The house of a merchant in Tuscany about 1400 might have had 12 to 14 rooms with a tile roof and glass windows, possibly a fireplace and wall hangings of French serge or linen or carpet. Floor carpeting, however, was rare. The dining room would have a long table with only one communal drinking glass and no forks (except for serving) and few spoons. Guests would bring their own knives. Benches were far more common than chairs. As everything was made of wood, fires were common and catastrophic, as in all of Europe.

As a result of the transfer of the church from a religious organization to, for all intents and purposes, a secular political power, the Italian middle and upper classes became the most skeptical of all European peoples. Although they paid lip service to the Catholic faith, their ideas and writings became more humanistic. (Ref. 50 , 213 ) The papal schisms of this century undoubtedly had something to do with this shift of loyalties Water was beginning to be a troublesome factor in a great city such as Rome and one of the few accomplishments of Pope Martin V after the first papal schism was to restore one of the demolished great Roman aqueducts. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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