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Europe (beginning the age of feudalism, chivalry and the rise of the german monarchy)

Back to Europe: A.D. 801 to 900

Europe's history now became a maze of alliances, treacheries, claims and acquisitions. Historians usually consider the 10th century almost as dark and barbarous as the 7th, but this is only from the political and written word viewpoint. 10th century art was as splendid and technically skilful as that of any other age. (Ref. 116 ) Heavy iron horse-shoes which allowed hooves to tolerate wet soil had been brought into Europe from the east in the last century and by A.D. 1,000 they were cheap enough to be afforded by peasants; but still lacking an adequate yoke, horses could still not be used for plowing, harrowing nor even heavy hauling. (Ref. 213 )

Southern europe

Cotton reached the Mediterranean world via the Arabs, from India. (Ref. 160 )

Eastern mediterranean islands

Byzantium troops took Candia, the northern Cretan city, from the Turks in 961 and the city was ruthlessly sacked. By 1,000 Genoese colonists had appeared on the same island. Other Mediterranean isles remained unmolested in the Byzantium Empire. (Ref. 41 , 48 )


A part of Byzantium

Upper balkans

The Bulgar King Simeon, educated at Constantinople as a monk, was the first of his people to take the title of Czar. He extended his rule to Serbia and the Adriatic Sea and engaged in wars with Constantinople and Greece. The conversion of the Bulgarians to Christianity did not prevent their monarch from aspiring to the throne at Constantinople and he tried to civilize his people with Greek literature. After his death the country was weakened by civil strife and heretics converted about half of the population to pacifism and communism. Serbia recovered its independence in 931 but lost it again to the Bulgarian Samuel in 989.

But we are a little ahead of our story. In 963 the prince of Kiev, with Byzantine help, had annexed the eastern section of Bulgaria, which was in chaos at the time. By 969, however, led by Chichmanides, the western section managed to break away from the Kievan state and form an independent kingdom in the regions later to be known as Macedonia, Albania, the district of Moravia and some regions of Vidin and Sofia. Under King Samuel, Macedonia became the cultural center of the realm. Four years after Samuel's death the Byzantines had annexed his realm, however, and the First Bulgarian Empire had ended. (Ref. 206 )

With regard to Serbia, Chaslav tried to unite the various mountain clans of Serbs in mid-century when they were somewhat out from under the Bulgarian yoke, but in the end the attempt was not successful.


At the end of the last century there had been considerable confusion concerning who was "king of Italy" and the Holy Roman Emperor. The title changed hands repeatedly among the late Carolingian heirs. Arnulf, illegitimate son of Carloman, grandson of Louis the German, was crowned king of Italy in 894 and then emperor in 896. Louis the Child was elected king by the magnates in 900. Upon his death in 911 Conrad, Duke of Franconia was elected in the same way. Italy was without effective native rule throughout this 10th century. In approximately the same period there were still others claiming to be the emperor. There was Berengar1, grandson of Louis the Pious, Guido of Spoleto, Lambert his son, and Louis of Provence, who was crowned emperor in 915. In the Germanic portion of the old Charlemagne Empire, King Henry I, called the Fowler, began his reign as the first Saxon king, but he avoided ecclesiastical coronation as emperor. But the "Middle Kingdom" of the three-way split, which included northern Italy, was weak and soon fell to the stronger Germany as Otto I the Great, succeeded Henry. After some difficulties with the pope, he was eventually crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 962 and claimed all central and northern Italy except the papal territory of Rome and the Sabine region. In the papal state confusion had reigned for some time, with the landed aristocracy dominating. Marozia, mistress of Pope Sergius III

Marozia was also the mother of Sergius' son John, later Pope John XI. (Ref. 119 )
, controlled the Curia, imprisoned Pope John XI and took command of Rome until her son, Alberic II, could assume power.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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