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Practically all the armies of Europe had adopted the military reforms initiated at the end of the previous century by Maurice of Holland. (See page 792). This resulted in obedient, responsive units of soldiers able to function efficiently in any part of the globe. The new drill and techniques spread from officers trained at Maurice's Military Academy, which was founded in 1619, first to Sweden, then to the northern Protestant European states and finally to France and eventually Spain. (Ref. 279 ) (Continue on page 942)

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

Continuing their take-over of Mediterranean islands, the Turks conquered the Cyclades and all of Crete except two off-shore Venetian forts. The Hospital of the Knights of Malta became a kind of teaching institution, treating patients from all over Christendorr. In 1653 Louis XIV of France gave the Knights four Caribbean islands, but they soon sold them to the French West India Co. (Ref. 38 , 86 ) (Continue on page 944)

Greece and upper balkans

Greece and most of the Balkans were under Ottoman rule although several Christian communities had survived and there was some degree of local autonomy by the prelates of Greek and Serbian churches. Many of the men of those western Christian Balkans fought as mercenaries, either for Venice or Constantinople. The Turks helped Istran (Stephen) Bocskay drive the Austrians out of Transylvania in 1605 and by the Austro Turkish Treaty of Zsitva-Torok, this area was left to his control. (See also HUNGARY, this chapter). (Ref. 222 , 279 )

Commercial agriculture became increasingly important with cotton, tobacco, wheat and maize produced by entrepreneurs, a feature which led to the diminution of military land-holding. After 1638 there was no more recruiting of Christian boys for Ottoman administration and the army and this, in turn, meant a widening gap between Christian and Moslem, landlord and peasant, village and town. Eventually this shift in relationships destroyed the Ottoman polity. (Ref. 139 ) Travel in the Balkans could be precarious and in open country travelers deployed their carriages in a circle at night, with everyone ready for defense, just as in the American west, centuries later. (Ref. 260 )

The great Venetian Admiral Francesco Morosini captured the Peloponnesus and laid siege to Athens in 1687. One of his shells hit a powder magazine which the Turks had stored in the Parthenon and it blew up, reducing the structure to its present state. (Ref. 131 ) The City of Senj of Croatia was the home of the Christian, Uskok pirates and Venice had to make war against them from 1613 on in order to protect its trade and its coastal regions such as Cattaro, Corfu and Levkas. We have noted above that near the end of the century Albanians became the grand viziers of Turkey. (Ref. 8 ) (Continue on page 946)


Italy continued in an age of invasion with the monarchs of Europe and petty Italian princes fighting over its territory. Most of the old ruling families of the city-states were dying out and Italy had little history of its own in this century. Even Venice fell into some decline and only in its war with Turkey was there some vestige of its earlier glory. The wealthy class of that city-state now abandoned trade and put all its resources into farming. Still, thanks to foreign shipping, Venice remained a very busy port. It was the rise of agricultural prices that drove Venetian capital to the land. (Ref. 292 ) Genoa lost its island of Corsica and for reasons still debatable, its credit collapsed. Braudel (Ref. 292 ) believes that it had to do with a change in the discount rate of bills of exchange. A bill had to acquire value as it went from country to country, or someone lost all. The plague obviously did not help. The Black Death killed a million people in north Italy between 1628 and 1631 and in Genoa there were perhaps 700 rich nobles left out of about 80,000 inhabitants. In Venice there were only 14 or 15 wealthy patricians lef t who were capable of holding high state positions. Florence barely existed, being little more than the Grand Duke's court. He had seized everything - money, the right to govern and distribute honors. (Ref. 260 ) In spite of all these troubles in Italy, active Jewish colonies survived for many years in Piedmont, Venice, Mantua and Ferrara. Jews even launched Leghorn on a prosperous new career in this century. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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