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Many of the Bulgarian noble families settled in Constantinople and merged with the Greek and Armenian aristocracies. Next, in about 1027, came the Patzinaks, invading from north of the Black Sea. They were finally driven back over the Danube by Byzantine general, Constantine Diogenes. Lastly, near the end of the century there were several catastrophes. In 1083 all of Macedonia up to the Vardar was conquered by the Normans and in 1086 a religious heretic group, the Bogomils, obtained support of the Patzinaks and Cumans and defeated Alexius and a large army. The Cumans then ravaged the entire eastern Balkan region as far as Constantinople itself, when the emperor then bought them off and used them in 1091 to annihilate the Patzinaks in the battle of Leburnion. The final blow to the Balkans at the end of the century was the sacking by the 1st Crusaders, as mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. By this time Hungary had absorbed Croatia and Dalmatia while the Patzinaks were squeezed into a small area of old Bulgaria between Hungary and the Byzantine territory. On the western coast, Byzantine Slav cities like Zara (Zadar), Trau (Trogir) and Regusa (Dubrovnik) carried on a thriving commerce with the Moslem East. Soon Venice was to conquer Dalmatia with a mixed Dalmatian-Venetian culture resulting. (Ref. 119 , 206 , 137 )


Through most of the Middle Ages Italy was divided into three spheres of power as follows:

  • The northern and part of central Italy, notably Tuscany, belonged to the Holy Roman Empire of the German kings and was known as "Regnum Italicum"
  • Rome and the rest of central Italy was subject to the popes
  • Southern Italy and Sicily were together as a separate kingdom called "The Two Sicilies". (Ref. 68 )

For awhile the Saracens were in control of Sicily, but they were expelled and replaced near the end of the century by the sea-going Normans who roved the area as pirates and robber-captains. Many came south in bands by land through the Rhineland and Italy, proper, also. Robert Guiscard, one of their leaders even crossed the Adriatic and captured the Byzantian stronghold at Durazzo, as noted in a previous paragraph. Overall it took the Normans about 20 years to completely take Byzantine Italy and Sicily, so that it was in 1071 that the last Italian possession fell to these raiders. (Ref. 137 , 8 ) In order to balance the power of the German emperor, the Cluny pope, Hildebrand courted not only the counts of Tuscany and the Lombards of north Italy but even the Norman conquerors in southern Italy.

There was an upsurge of commercial activity in the Mediterranean with the principal carriers being the Italian merchants of Venice, Genoa and other ports. (Ref. 279 ) Venice compensated for the decline in power of Rome and Ravena by shrewdly accepting a form of Byzantine suzerainty under cover of which it monopolized east-west trade for awhile. During the century, however, Venice did lose some commerce to Milan and other port cities. The main trade objects going from Europe to the East were amber, furs, fish, tallow, honey, wool and wine. (Ref. 137 , 211 , 279 ) It so happens that China had a marked increase in maritime business at this same time. Pisa occupied Sardinia in 1050 and Corsica in 1077.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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