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Abundance

The abundance of the Group 13 elements is given in [link] . Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust and is found in a wide range of minerals. While boron is not as common it is also found in a range of borate minerals. In contrast, gallium, indium, and thallium are found as impurities in other minerals. In particular indium and thallium are found in sulfide or selenide mineral rather than oxides, while gallium is found in both sulfides (ZnS) and oxides (bauxite). Although indium and thallium minerals are known, they are rare: indite (FeIn 2 S 4 ), lorandite (TlAsS 2 ), crookesite (Cu 7 TlSe 4 ).

Abundance of Group 13 elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
B 10 (Earth’s crust), 20 (soil), 4 (sea water)
Al 82,000 (Earth’s crust), 100,000 (soil), 5 x 10 -4 (sea water)
Ga 18 (Earth’s crust), 28 (soil), 30 x 10 -6 (sea water)
In 0.1 (Earth’s crust), 0.01 (soil), 0.1 x 10 -6 (sea water)
Tl 0.6 (Earth’s crust), 0.2 (soil), 10 x 10 -6 (sea water)

Isotopes

The naturally abundant isotopes of the Group 13 elements are listed in [link] . Thallium has 25 isotopes that have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. Thallium-204 is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years.

Abundance of the major isotopes of the Group 13 elements.
Isotope Natural abundance (%)
Boron-10 19.9
Boron-11 80.1
Aluminum-27 100
Gallium-69 60.11
Gallium-71 39.89
Indium-113 4.3
Indium-115 95.7
Thallium-203 29.52
Thallium-205 70.48

The Group 13 elements offer potential as NMR nuclei ( [link] ). In particular 11 B and 27 Al show promise for characterization in both solution and solid state.

Isotopes of Group 13 elements for NMR spectroscopy.
Isotope Spin Natural abundance (%) Quadrupole moment (10 -30 m 2 ) NMR frequency (MHz) at a field of 2.3488 T Reference
Boron-10 3 19.58 8.459 -10.746 BF 3 .Et 2 O
Boron-11 3 / 2 80.42 4.059 -32.084 BF 3 .Et 2 O
Aluminum-27 5 / 2 100 14.66 -26.057 Al(NO 3 ) 3
Gallium-69 3 / 2 60.4 17.1 -24.003 Ga(NO 3 ) 3
Gallium-71 3 / 2 39.6 10.7 -30.495 Ga(NO 3 ) 3
Indium-113 9 / 2 4.28 79.9 -21.866 In(NO 3 ) 3
Indium-115 9 / 2 95.72 81.0 -21.914 In(NO 3 ) 3

Industrial production

Borax is mined as a mixture of Na 2 B 4 O 7 .4H 2 O and Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O. Acidification gives boric acid, B(OH) 3 , which can be reduced with sodium amalgam (Na/Hg) to give amorphous boron. Pure boron can be prepared by reducing boron halides (e.g., BF 3 and BCl 3 ) with hydrogen at high temperatures. Ultrapure boron, for the use in semiconductor industry, is produced by the decomposition of diborane (B 2 H 6 ) and then further purified with the zone melting or Czochralski processes.

The only two economic sources for gallium are as byproduct of aluminum and zinc production. Extraction during the Bayer process followed by mercury cell electrolysis and hydrolysis of the amalgam with sodium hydroxide leads to sodium gallate. Electrolysis then gives gallium metal.

The lack of indium mineral deposits and the fact that indium is enriched in sulfides of lead, tin, copper, iron and zinc, makes the zinc production the main source for indium. The indium is leached from slag and dust of zinc production. Up until 1924, there was only about a gram of isolated indium on the planet, however, today worldwide production is currently greater 476 tons per year from mining and a 650 tons per year from recycling. This massive increase in demand is due to applications in LCD displays and solar cell applications.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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