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(Continue on pages 490 and 492) Additional Notes


Throughout the last century the Picts had fought against each other, but after a last intramural battle in 729, Oengus became king of all Picts. He promptly made peace with the Angles and then turned to battle the Scots, capturing Dunadd and Dunolly, drowning one Dalriadic king and forcing others to take to the sea. But when he wheeled south again against Strathclyde, his army was annihilated, perhaps through some treachery. (Ref. 170 ) Iona, the Scottish religious shrine island, was invaded by the Norse in 794 and was burned just after the turn of the next century. (Ref. 119 )


The Christian world of Patrick's Ireland was shattered by Vikings in 795 and raided by them for the next 200 years. As a result of this, there are currently genetic similarities of populations of Scandinavia, Scotland and Northern Ireland, even though geographically separated. Irish monks landed in Iceland about 759, in hide-covered curraghs. (Ref. 143 , 260 )


Norway | sweden | denmark

Of the territory of the Germanic peoples, only Scandinavia kept out of Charlemagne's Empire. In Sweden, the town of Birka began to dominate the area of Lake Malar. It was an economic unit of considerable importance. Even a bronze Buddha has been found there. Just west of present day Stockholm, the island of Helgo was the center of industry, including the production of cheap jewelry, iron-working, etc.

The first Dano-Norwegian raid to strike real terror in Europe was the attack on Lindisfarne, England in 789, where a famous convent and seat of learning was attacked and the inmates killed or taken off as slaves. Many of the raids of the Frisian and English coasts originated in the vigorous kingdom of Juteland in Denmark. "Viking" probably means "men from the fiords", because "vik" means "a little fiord" in both Danish and Norwegian. In addition to sea travel, the Scandinavians travelled great distances by land, as from Uppland, Sweden to Trondelag, Norway, by horses, sledges and carts. There was an ox-road from north Juteland into Germany. In winter men used skates and skies and put spikes on horses’ hooves. (Ref. 117 ) Additional Notes


In this century the Finns, coming from the south and southwest, took present day Finland (at least Karelia) from the Lapps, who receded northward. As noted previously the Finns spoke a Finno-Ugric language, related to Lapp and Livonian. Their language, although not their blood types, suggest distant relation to the Huns and the Magyars who came from the upper Volga and Oka rivers. There were three basic tribes: the Tavastians, who settled in western Finland; the Karelians; and the true Finns who had originally settled on the south shore of the Gulf of Finland. They cleared the forest and drained the marshes, but the three tribes waged war on each other. (Ref. 61 )

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

Related to the Finns were the Borussians (Old Prussians), Esths (Estonians), Livs (Livonians), Litva (Lithuanians) and Latvians who settled the Baltic areas south of the Gulf of Finland. All of these people remained pagan for several centuries.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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