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The near east

Back to The Near East: A.D. 801 to 900

Beginning about 960 Turkish tribesmen infiltrated the central regions of the Islamic world, seizing power in Mesopotamia and Iran. We shall see that at the same time other Turkish people invaded the Ukraine and on their other flank charged the Chinese borders. (Ref. 279 )

Arabia and jordan

The actual center of the Arab administration and religion had shifted out of the Arabian peninsula. In the south a Shi'ite sect, the Qarmatians (Carmathians) had revolted against the Abbasids in 899 and then remained completely independent as the chief civilization center in that part of the Arab world. (Ref. 137 )

It seems appropriate at this time to consider, for a moment, the world effect of the Arabian culture and particularly the Arabic language. Many Arabic words were widely used throughout civilization at that time and have come down to us in English. These include tariff, traffic, magazine, caravan, bazaar, check, cipher and zero. Algebra, an Arabic word, was a subject developed extensively, with both analytical and geometric solutions of equations. Chemistry was almost created by the Moslems.

Mediterranean coastal area

These coastal areas, as well as much of western Syria, were now controlled by the Egyptian caliphate, even through the periods of changing administrations.

Iraq and syria

The Abbasid Dynasty at Baghdad became weaker and weaker, while the caliph, himself, was at the mercy of his Turkish "praetorians", whose chiefs came and went in rapid succession. One after another of the provinces was lost to the central government and finally, although the Abbasid Caliph persisted as the Moslem religious head (comparable to the pope in the Catholic world), the government of this near east area was taken over by the Buwayhid Emirate, a pro-Shi'ite, Turkish dynasty. (Ref. 137 ) These Seljuk (also Seljuq) Turks established themselves in Baghdad with a new kind of Muslim state based on a partnership between men of the sword (chiefly their own Turks) and bureaucrats and men of the law (Persians or Arabs), all under the name of the Abbasid Caliphate. (Ref. 8 ) As Toynbee (Ref. 221 ), has written, the Abbasid name continued to be used by the usurpers of its power, for seven centuries after the beginning of its decline, just by virtue of its long tenure.

In spite of political decay, science and art continued to advance. Hospitals and medical science were especially good and extensive, with 860 licensed physicians in Baghdad alone, in A.D. 931. The hospital at Damascus had elegant rooms and an extensive medical library. (Ref. 125 ) We mentioned on page 479 that al-Khwarizmi introduced "Arabic" numerals from India. In this century he used the decimal system and wrote standard treatises on al-jabr (algebra).

Iran: persia

The Samanid Dynasty continued, ruling the adjacent part of Central Asia as well as most of Persia, proper. The Persian language was used with commercial activity at its height. Avicenna, of north Persia, was the greatest of the medieval philosophers and also an excellent physician, writing the "Canon of Medicine", which was used at Montpellier Medical School of southern France when it was established in 1650. Al Razi (or Rhazes), a Persian who wrote in Arabic, was considered the greatest of all medieval physicians. The medical Arabists (which included Nestorian Christians, Persians and Jews, who were not ethnic Arabs) relied both on writers of the past, such as Galen, and on developing new aspects of pharmacy and chemistry, including techniques of distillation, crystallization, solution, sublimation, reduction, and calcination. They were good clinicians and instructors, describing such things as scabies and mediastinal abscesses, previously unrecognized. Midwives did much of the obstetric and gynecological work, however. (Ref. 125 )

The manufacture of astrolabes had already begun in Persia at Isfahan and certain stylistic features of the earliest of these remained typical of eastern Islamic astrolabes throughout their history. These were complicated observational and computing instruments for astronomers. (Ref. 173 ) The conversion to Islam of the old, heavy horse cavalrymen caused them to abandon their old military ethic and as a result of this decrease in protection, nomad raiding from the steppe began again with the appearance of Turkish invaders. Chief among these were the Ghaznawids, under commander-in-chief Subaktagin, formerly a slave in Khorasan. (Ref. 119 ) Additional Notes

Asia minor

Turkey: byzantium

In spite of being ringed by enemies and having only a small geographical area, this was a time of prosperity for the Macedonian Dynasty. The army was good, there was little religious controversy, the provinces were well governed and Constantinople was the richest city of the world. The emperors continued to have Norse mercenaries as the Varangian guard. There were continued Romano-Bulgarian wars, however, and this caused some break-down in the Greek Orthodox Christian Society and some territory continued to be lost. The great warrior Emperor Basil II began to reign in 976, but Anatolia was soon overrun by great feudal barons who eventually began to rise up against Basil. (Ref. 170 )

As a side light of some medical interest, a 1978 study of skeletons dating between the 7th and 12th centuries, from Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul, indicated good nutrition and general health of the individuals of this region. The average height for males was 5'6" and for women 5'1". Mongoloid features, such as shovel-shaped incisors, pinched foreheads, etc. occurred in 15 to 25%, suggesting mercenaries and merchants either from beyond the Caucasus or from the Russian steppes. 69% of the males showed osteoarthritic changes in the spine and 33% in the extremities. (Ref. 4 )


Sajid Emir of Azerbaijan, on the southwest coast of the Caspian, spent the early century forming a new Armenian kingdom called "Vaspurakan", south of Armenia proper, thus creating a rivalry that actually resulted in Armenians killing Armenians. (Ref. 137 ) In the original country, however, the reign of Gagik I marked the apogee of the material prosperity and cultural revival of Armenia. The Bagratunis continued to reign until about A.D. 1,000 when the central authority became weak and broke down with the formation of about six virtually independent kingdoms. (Ref. 237 )

Forward to The Near East: A.D. 1001 to 1100

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Thanks to the success of the Samanids in taking prisoners, slaves were now worth only 20 or 30 dirhams, compared to 600,000 dirhams in the previous century. (Ref. 301 )

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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